文化觀光發展要素與類型: 以荷蘭城市為例 Factors and Typologies of Cultural Tourism Development: Case Studies of Dutch Cities

Date
2012
Authors
黃繻寬
Ju-kuan Hwang
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Abstract
文化觀光過去泛指以藝術與人文為主題之觀光活動,例如以古蹟、博物館、藝術和音樂為主要目的之旅遊。然而由於觀光產業受到全世界的關注,旅遊業者與國家政府皆積極開發新的觀光利基市場(niche market),將觀光與廣義的文化結合,因此文化觀光逐漸以更多元的樣貌呈現,包含美食觀光、節慶與活動觀光等。文化觀光的特色來自於地方獨特的歷史與文化背景,因此將歷史文化資源發展轉換成文化觀光資源的過程,以及文化觀光產品展現地方特色的能力將成為文化觀光的成功關鍵。 本研究選擇以個案研究法探討觀光產業競爭環境(environment of competition)與台灣相似的荷蘭,研究對象包含阿姆斯特丹(Amsterdam)、鹿特丹(Rotterdam)及馬斯垂克(Maastricht),採取多個案研究設計突顯成是因歷史、地理及觀光資源而衍生不同的文化觀光發展。本文以經濟合作發展組織(OECD)的「文化、觀光、吸引力與競爭力」模型作為研究的理論架構,探討個案城市如何把握地方既有的文化歷史資源,進一步創造出更多的文化觀光產品,以及如何透過行銷及治理策略等文化觀光發展要素創造出競爭優勢。 結果顯示,個案城市把握地方資源及行銷策略發展出遺產觀光、博物館觀光、節慶與活動觀光、美食觀光與產業觀光等不同的文化觀光類型,同時善用大型活動結合多個觀光產品。此外,個案城市的治理策略也有特殊表現,跨界合作的例子眾多且多有不錯的成效,其中公部門與業界、跨城市與跨國的觀光行銷合作尤其值得參考。
The term cultural tourism used to denote tourism activities that are related to art and humanity, such as travels with the motivation of visiting heritages and museums, or appreciating art and music. As tourism industry thrives, the industry and authorities are eagerly looking for new niche markets to maintain its competitiveness. By means of combining tourism and “culture” in a more generalized definition, cultural tourism gradually presents itself with various forms, such as gastronomy tourism and event tourism. Also, the uniqueness of cultural tourism derives from the cultural and historical background of a place. Hence, the key of developing successful cultural tourism lies in the planning and transformation of cultural resources into cultural tourism as well as the ability to present features of the place. The case study method is adopted in this study to examine developments of cultural tourism in the Netherlands, whose competitive environment regarding the tourism industry is similar to that of Taiwan. The cities chosen for analysis are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Maastricht. Multiple-case design is employed in order to highlight the different developments of cultural tourism derived from particular cultural and historical background, geographical condition and tourism resources in all three cities. The framework of the research applies OECD’s model of culture, tourism, attractiveness and competitiveness. The paper examines how Dutch cities utilize its cultural resources and further create more cultural tourism products and how to build up competitive advantage through marketing and governing strategies. The results show that based on local recourse and decent marketing strategy Dutch cities develops a typology of cultural tourism including heritage tourism, museum tourism, festival and event tourism, gastronomy tourism and industry tourism. In addition, Dutch cities excel in utilizing events to combine various tourism products and encouraging public-private, city to city, cross-border city cooperation.
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Keywords
文化觀光, 荷蘭, 文化觀光類型, 觀光發展要素, cultural tourism, The Netherlands, cultural tourism typology, tourism development factors
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