Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85935
Title: 從《世界城市圖》(Civitates Orbis Terrarum)詮釋16世紀末至17世紀初歐洲旅遊的概念
Interpreting the Concept of European Travel from Late 16th Century to Early 17th Century from the Viewpoint of “Civitates Orbis Terrarum”
Authors: 陳學毅
Chen, Hsueh-i
宋純慧
Sung, Chun Hui
Keywords: 世界城市圖
城市圖像
旅行
自我
他者
Civitates Orbis Terrarum
City View
Travel
Self
Other
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 《世界城市圖》於1572年至1617年在歐洲的安特衛普(Antwerp)及科隆(Cologne)出版,內容為六大冊的城市圖像,以歐洲城市為主,也包含亞洲、美洲、非洲城市。出版商Georg Braun在第三冊出版時曾說明出版《世界城市圖》的目的是為了提供讀者臥遊(armchair travel)。本論文以《世界城市圖》為文本,並以旅行時跨越疆界遇見他者與自我建構的角度來分析《世界城市圖》的圖像內容。 《世界城市圖》的出版見證當時的時代氛圍,世俗的旅遊興起,然而卻也面臨不少的困難,例如因宗教改革(The Reformation)而引發多次的宗教戰爭,因而圖冊可以充當臥遊用。圖冊內容以歐洲城市為主,許多城市圖像以一個當時技術不可能做到、近90度垂直的高視角來俯視並描繪整座城市。圖冊除了描繪城市外,也將一地的習俗、歷史等繪入圖像中,讓讀者、旅者可以收藏世界,從百科全書式(encyclopedic)的畫法中可以看出當時歐洲人對於歐洲及歐洲以外的世界非常好奇,並且急於收藏。 然而,從圖像的再現中發現,圖像並非中立。圖像中除了展現人類的自信外,也隱含了當歐洲人在跨越疆界時,因差異而區分出「自我」與「他者」,且藉由與他者的互動而建構出自我。從圖像中可以發現,此時歐洲人除了展現無比的信心外,無形中也透露出優越感。歐洲人透過百科全書式的再現技巧來呈現他者,他者包含歐洲以外的世界―亞洲、美洲,也包含基督教世界以外的伊斯蘭教徒,圖像中的他者,歐洲以外的世界仍以歐洲的想像被呈現、被凝視、被探索。基督徒的教堂取代摩爾人的清真寺、土耳其人形象好戰窮兵黷武、美洲的古文明被摧毀後改以歐洲形式的城牆出現在圖像中、印度的住民則以怪異且含獸性的形象出現。雖然歐洲文明優越的論述在19世紀才正式確立,然而從圖像中看來,其優越的概念早在16世紀的圖像中已然出現,透過圖像,歐洲人建構出一個自信且優越的自我。
“Civitates Orbis Terrarum” was published in Antwerp and Cologne between 1572-1617 and consisted of 6 volumes. The publisher Georg Braun claimed that “Civitates Orbis Terrarum” would be the surrogate of real travel for armchair travelers. The topic of the thesis will be the analysis of “Civitates Orbis Terrarum” from the perspective of the self and its relation towards the others during traveling. “Civitates Orbis Terrarum” depicted American, Asian, African cities, and especially European cities. The encyclopedic tradition was showed in the “Civitates Orbis Terrarum”. It portrayed not only cities but regional customs, history, and so on. By illustrating cities from their own perspectives, Europeans expressed their incomparable confidence, and proudness. Therefore, the images they presented were not objective. Because of the transgression of the borders, differences between the self and the others became obvious. Not only did Europeans express their confidence, but also a sense of superiority. The others outside Europe were pictured in an unjustified way. The Turks were described as bellicose, and brutal. The Indians were bestial. The South American city wall was depicted in a typical European style. Although the so-called European superiority did not emerge until 19th century, the images in “Civitates Orbis Terrarum” already indicate the preliminary development of the European supremacy in advance.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0697820027%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85935
Other Identifiers: GN0697820027
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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