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Title: 蔣經國人格特質與臺灣政治發展(1972-1988)
Chiang Ching-Kuo's Personality Characteristics and Taiwan Political Development (1972-1988)
Authors: 莊政
Zhuang Zheng
Keywords: 蔣經國
Chiang Ching-kuo
Personality Characteristics
Political Development
Political Localization
Political Liberalization
Political Participation
cross-Strait relations
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: 影響「政治發展」的因素甚多,尤其在開發中國家,當民智尚未完全開化,現代化的制度和秩序尚未穩固之際,政治領袖的「人格特質」、知識和領導技巧,往往對一國的「政治發展」產生鉅大而深遠的影響。蔣經國擔任國家領導人,他的「人格特質」對於臺灣「政治發展」必然具有一定的影響力。 本文首先探討蔣經國的「人格特質」,分別以「人格特質」之形成背景、「人格特質」之內涵,以及「人格特質」之評價,一步一步切入蔣經國的「人格特質」核心;第二部份則嚐試以蔣經國的「人格特質」來探討臺灣在1970 及1980 年代的「政治發展」,內容包括:「政治本土化」、「政治自由化」、「政治參與」及「兩岸關係」等4 個面向。 蔣經國推動「政治本土化」政策與其「務實」的「人格特質」有關,因為在他的政治認知中,中國「必然統一於自由民主的三民主義制度之下」,臺灣與大陸的競爭在於制度之爭,而制度推動的關鍵在於人才,他在1970 年代末期大量任用本省籍的政治菁英參與中央政府決策,有效疏導與整合本省人與外省人的政治歧見,奠定政治安定的基礎。此外,他也希望任用的臺籍人士具有中華民族的思想,「本土化」的長遠目標就是追求中國必將統一於三民主義之下。 蔣經國在推動「政治自由化」的過程中,發揮「強烈的國家、民族及歷史使命感」的「人格特質」。雖然政府已確定「解嚴」的大方向,但他認為國家安全仍需獲得保障,因此他指示制定《動員戡亂時期國家安全法》,待國家安全有法律保障後再宣佈解除戒嚴。即使「解嚴」前的國內、外情勢「暗潮洶湧」,不過蔣經國發揮堅定的「決心」與「勇敢」面對挑戰的「人格特質」,毅然決然推動「政治自由化」。 蔣經國在擔任行政院院長時期,以發掘人才為目的,發揮「務實」的「人格特質」,持續推行地方自治,並辦理有限制的中央民意代表增補選;而在擔任總統時期,除進一步推動中央及地方選舉外,並著手改造中國國民黨為競爭性政黨,為將來「解嚴」及「開放黨禁」預作準備。蔣經國準備以逐步鬆綁威權體制的方式,達成臺灣民主和平轉型的目標。 「兩岸關係」自1949 年以來由武力對峙到1987 年開放大陸探親,有其歷史發展的自然演變。1979 年「中美斷交」,正當風雨飄搖之際,擔任國家領導人的蔣經國,其個人的政治認知與「人格特質」,應是我國能由危轉安的重要因素。1987 年政府開放大陸探親,雖然導因於許多國內、外的客觀環境,但蔣經國此時所發揮的「人格特質」,對於政府決定開放大陸探親應具有關鍵性的影響。蔣經國的兩岸政策,其終極目標是希望中國統一於三民主義的制度之下。 總結本篇論文研究發現,蔣經國於1972 年至1988 年擔任行政院院長及總統時期,臺灣的「政治發展」正處於由威權體制轉型為民主政治的關鍵時刻。蔣經國推動的政治改革,包括:「政治本土化」、「政治自由化」、「政治參與」,以及「兩岸關係」的開展,為臺灣此後的「政治發展」奠定基礎。
Although there are countless factors affecting political development, especially in developing country. When people’s wisdom in this country is not fully enlightened, and modern political system and order are not stabilized, personality characteristics, knowledge and leadership skill of the political leader normally made massive and far-reaching impact on country’s political development. Chiang Ching-kuo played the role of nation’s leader, his personality characteristics would definitely make impact on Taiwan political development. This article starts with exploration of Chiang Ching-kuo’s personality characteristics, and step by step, to penetrate into the core of Chiang Ching-kuo’s personality characteristics separately via the background formation, contents and appraisal of his personality characteristics. The second part tries to focus on the approach from Chiang Ching-kuo’s personality characteristics, and explore Taiwan political developments in the decades of 70’ and 80’s. The contents include: Four aspects of political localization, political liberalization, political participation and cross-Strait relation. Chiang Ching-kuo’s promotion of political localization policy was related to his practical personality characteristics. Since within his political acknowledgement, China “must be united under the guidance of the Three Principles of the People characterised by liberty and democracy”. The competition between Taiwan and mainland China is basically a competition of systems, and the key for system promotion rests on talent. Therefore he started to appoint massive provincial political elites to participate in the policy decision-making at central government level, which effectively alleviated the grievance and consolidated political elites from either local province or other provinces. This laid the solid foundation for political stability. Other than this, he also hoped Taiwanese elites possessing the thoughts and inclinations of Chinese people as a whole. The long range focus and target for political localization were to pursue the unification of China under the premise of guidance from the Three Principles of the People. Chiang Ching-kuo exerted his personality characteristics of “strong belief in his historical mission” in the process of promoting political liberalization. Although the government decided the direction of lifting the martial law, he recognized the need of protection for national security. Therefore he directed the prescription of 《National security act for mobilization to defeat national chaos》and planned to officially declare the lift of martial law after national security was firmly under legal protection. Even though the situation of both foreign and domestic before the lifting of martial law was dangerous, it would not prohibit Chiang Ching-kuo who exerted his personality characteristics of “determination” and “great bravery”, and he went ahead and decided to promote the political liberalization with no turning back. During his premiership, Chiang Ching-kuo aimed to look for the talent and exerted his “practical” personality characteristics . He persisted on the promotion of local governance in addition to hold elections of addition and filling-the-seats for limited representatives at central government level. During his presidency, he not only promote elections for both the central and local levels, but also proceeded to revamp K.M.T into a party of competitiveness. These would be viewed as preparations for lifting the martial law and forming new political parties. Chiang Ching-kuo planned to terminate the authoritative system and reach the goal of peaceful transformation into democracy gradually. Cross-Strait relations changed from armed confrontation since 1949 into lifting the ban of mainland China relative visitation in 1987. This has the natural evolution aspect from historical perspective. 1979, diplomatic relationship between R.O.C and USA was severed. Chiang Ching-kuo, under this swirling, unsteady and pivotal moment, he took the responsibility of national leadership. His personal political recognition and personality characteristics should be one of the vital factors that our nation could experience this turnaround from danger and peril into peace and safety. In 1987, government lifted the ban of mainland China relative visitation, although this could be resulted from both foreign and domestic objective environmental factors, Chiang Ching-kuo exerted his personality characteristics and would have key impact on lifting the ban of mainland China relative visitation. Chiang Ching-kuo’s ultimate goal of cross-Strait relations was to pursue the unification of China under the premise of guidance from the Three Principles of the People. In summarization, the findings of this thesis pointed out that, during the 1972~1988 premiership and presidency of Chiang Ching-kuo, our nation’s political development was at the crossroads of key moments in transforming from an authoritarian system into a democracy one. Chiang Ching-kuo’s promotion for political reforms included the developments of political localization, political liberalization, political participation and cross-Strait relation laid a foundation of Taiwan’s democracy.
Other Identifiers: GN0889100043
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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