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Title: 憲法性自主權之理論與實踐:我國相關法律修法論析
Theory and Practice of Constitutional Right to Sex Autonomy-An Analysis on Code Revision of Related Laws
Authors: 陳文政
Dr. Wen Cheng Chen
Yin Hua Chen
Keywords: 人性尊嚴
Human Dignity
Sex Autonomy
Principle of Neutrality
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: 台灣做為一個民主國家,保障性自主權仍有不足。1980年代末以來,政治雖解嚴,性文化卻仍未解嚴,處於一種故步自封的階段,例如刑法第235條規定,散布、播送或販賣猥褻的文字、圖畫、聲音、影像或其他物品,或公然陳列,或以他法供人觀覽、聽聞,處2年以下有期徒刑、拘役或科或併科三萬元以下罰金。因「猥褻」定義無一定準則,其中所涉及的販賣色情書刊、網路自拍和一般的色情資訊都涉及到刑法第235條和相關言論自由的問題,在公序良俗與性自主權維護之兩端翹翹板上,究竟孰輕孰重?是否有鼓勵歧視橫行,默許道德殺人,有其爭議之處,此乃值得吾人加以研究。   身處文化和價值觀互異的當代民主社會,為了共存共榮,必須學習尊重多元文化。價值的選擇並非絕對,而是具有變異性的相對尊重。吾人更應彈性去體察這些現象,嘗試對單一的價值理念抱持批判的精神,用宏觀的思維將個人放在整體社會中來看待。尤其,在道德標準量尺不一的當代社會中,標準時常浮動地與時俱進,所謂「徒法不足以自行」,法律的制定過程中,勢必會產生許多公共意見的交流,促使法令的修改、廢止。本論文希望藉由檢視我國和「性」有關的相關新舊法條來探究憲法保障性自主權之落實情形,同時嘗試一窺其中諸多價值衝擊和妥協過程。它們分別是刑法235條、兒童及少年性交易防制條例29條和社會秩序維護法第80條。此乃本研究之動機。   本文之研究目的有四: 一、 探討憲法保障性自主權的學理基礎,從人性尊嚴的上位概念出發,進而探討人的主體性與人的自由意志兩個子內涵,以文化保守主義與公民自由主義為理論支撐,說明個人自我決定為何需要受到維護與人民自由權利落實兩大層面。 二 、基於落實憲法保障性自主權之旨意,探討我國的法律規範:大法官會議解釋、刑法、兒童及少年性交易防制條例及社會秩序維護法的具體內涵。 三 、探討我國保障性自主權的法律問題及這些問題對性自主權保障之影響。 四、 為了落實憲法保障性自主權之旨意,說明如何透過修法以解決上述法律問題。 本研究的修法建議結論有三: 一、刑法第235條之修正   建議修改刑法第235條,將犯罪的成立要件限縮於那些向青少年,意即未滿18歲之未成年人以及不願意看到猥褻性言論者觀覽、聽聞猥褻品。將犯罪要件限縮於行為人所散布、播送、販賣、陳列或以他法供人觀覽、聽聞猥褻品之對象為未滿十八歲之青少年似較容易且較易成文化,例如可將刑法第235條第一項修正為「散布、播送或販賣猥褻文字、圖畫、聲音、影像或其他物品予未滿十八歲之人,或公然陳列,或以他法供十八歲之人觀覽、聽聞者,…」,第二項修正為「意圖散布、播送、販賣予未滿十八歲之人而製造、持有猥褻文字、圖畫、聲音、影像或其他物品者,亦同。」 二、兒童及少年性交易防制條例第29條之修正 現行兒童及少年性交易防制條例第二十九條揭示,以廣告物、出版品、廣告、電視、電子訊號、電腦網路或其他媒體,散布、播送或刊登足以引誘、媒介、暗示或其他促使人為性交易之訊息者,處五年以下有期徒刑,得併科新台幣一百萬元以下罰金。應修正為二十九條,以廣告物、出版品、廣播、電視、電子訊號、電腦網路或其他媒體,散布、播送或刊登足以引誘、媒介或其他促使未滿十八歲之人與他人為性交易之訊息者,處五年以下有期徒刑,得併科新台幣一百萬元以下罰金。總體來說,刪除「暗示」與增列「未滿十八歲之人與他人」,刪除暗示是因為暗示屬於表達訊息內容的方式之一,且無一致性的標準,以罪刑明確性原則檢視刪除暗示一詞,實有必要。針對警政署訂頒「員警查獲不幸兒童少年或重大色情案件獎勵金核發原則」,關於記功與核法績效獎金相關內容,實有不妥,應該予以刪除。 三、社會秩序維護法第80條之修正 社會秩序維護法公佈施行後,其位階高於三種管理娼妓法規,形成行政命令牴觸法律之狀況,故應將社會秩序維護法第80條的規定之行為人加上「未經主管機關准許」等文字區別。
Abstract   Athough Taiwan is a democratic society, sexual autonomy remains an issue. Even though the government has lifted the Martial Law by the end of 1980, sex culture remains in the state of isolation. For example, article 235 of the Criminal Law states that any form of public display, including distributing, broadcasting, or selling pornographic writing, picture, video, or any other materials, or allowing others to view or hear such materials in any way, will be sentenced up to two years of imprisonment and/or a fine of up to 30,000 dollars. However, the lack of definite guidelines to define "obscenity," the balance between public welfare and freedom of speech becomes an issue. Sales of pornographic publications, self-taken sexual photographs over the internet, and other pornographic or obscene materials in general are also related to freedom of speech, according to article 235 of the Criminal Law. The problem thus lies within choosing between the balance of public order and sexual autonomy, which should precede the other? Should killing be permitted in the name of morality? Such controversy is the focus of this research.   In order to co-exist in our modern multicultural society where moral values clash with one another, we must learn to respect cultural diversity, where the choice of value is not absolute but with an equal respect to such cultural variety. We should examine and experience the phenomenon with a receptive approach, while holding a critical eye to any theory with only one value. We should assume a broadened thinking perspective and put individuals in perspective of the society. The accepted moral values change constantly in our modern society: what is considered to be acceptable may vary from one generation to another. There is an old saying, "the law itself will not govern the people." In the process of establishing a legal legislation, the public opinion will, and should, inevitably exert the revision or abolishment of legislations. This thesis paper is an attempt to examine the nation's old and new legislations relevant to "sex" and explore the implementation of sex autonomy protected by the Constitution. We may also catch a glimpse of the clashing and compromising processes between different moral values. This research is motivated by Article 235 of Criminal Code, article 29 of Prostitution Prevention Code for Minor and Teenager, and article 80 of Social Order Maintenance Code. There are four purposes of this research: First, the theoretical basics of sex autonomy protected by the constitution right will be discussed. It begins with the discussion of human dignity followed by two sub-issues of subjectivity and human free will. Cultural conservatism and civic liberalism will be discussed as support to the theory, in order to further illustrate the two main ideas as to why human free will needs to be protected and civic liberal rights must be implemented. Second, based on the decree of sex autonomy protected by the constitution and the implementation of such rights, the nation's legal norm will be discussed: Supreme Court Congress Interpretation, Criminal law, Prostitution Prevention Code for Minor and Teenager, Social Order Maintenance Code and their specific contents. Third, legal issues regarding sexual autonomy protection will be examined, as well as the influence of such legal issues have on the protection of sex autonomy. Finally, further discussions regarding how the above legal issues may beresolved through code revision, in order to implement sex autonomy protected by the constitution. This research concludes three suggestions to code revision: 1. Amendment of loophole in the Criminal Law: article 235 revision We suggest to revise article 235 of Criminal Law to establish offense only when suspects are targeting minors, meaning anyone under the age of 18 who are not willing to be exposed to any pornographic or obscene materials, speech or publications. It is simpler and also easier to be made into custom to narrow the conditions in which to file charges only when the suspect is distributing, broadcasting, selling, displaying or allowing others to view or hear obscene publication in any way to a person under 18. E.g. we can first revise article 235 of Criminal Law to "distributing, broadcasting, or selling obscene writing, picture, audio, video or, displaying or allowing others to view or hear obscene publication to anyone under 18, or to display in public, or in any way for a person under 18 to view or hear..." We can then make a second amendment: "Producing, possessing obscene writing, picture, video, and any other publication with intentions to distribute, broadcast, or sell to a person under 18 will also be charged with criminal offense." 2. Amendment of loophole in Prostitution Prevention Code for Minor and Teenager: article 29 revision Article 29 of Prostitution Prevention Code for Minor and Teenager states individuals who use enticing, mediating, suggesting or promoting prostitution in advertisement, publication, commercial, television, electronic publication, internet, or any other medium, will be sentenced up to five years of imprisonment with a fine up to one million dollars NTD. Amendment for article 29, "enticing, mediating, or promoting persons under 18 for prostitution with others in advertisement, publication, commercial, television, electronic publication, internet, or any other medium, will be sentence up to five years imprisonment and fine up to one million dollars NTD. Generally speaking, we omitted "suggesting" and added "promoting persons under 18 for prostitution with others." The word “suggesting” has been omitted for the reason that by definition, “suggesting” has no consistent standard, but a mere way of conveying a message content. Such a word should therefore be avoided in order to maintain clarity in defining the crime. In addition, the reward system and bonus reward by the National Police Agency for policemen who seize minors involved in sex crime or large scale sex crime should also be abolished. 3. Amendment of loophole for Social Order Maintenance Code: article 80 revision The Social Order Maintenance Code has a status higher than three other prostitution management codes, which results in a conflict between the administrative decree and the law. Therefore, "unapproved by authority" should be added to the article 80 of Social Order Maintenance Code to differentiate. Key words: Human Dignity, Self-determination, Sex Autonomy, Principle of Neutrality
Other Identifiers: GN0696100092
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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