Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85496
Title: 立法委員選舉單一選區兩票制之研究
Legislative research of two system of ticket of committee member's single precinct
Authors: 黃人傑博士
Huang Jen-Chieh .Ph. D.
陳春輝
Chen, Chun-Hui
Keywords: 單一選區兩票制
單記不可讓渡投票法
選區劃分原則
傑利蠑螈
單一選區兩票制之併立制聯立制
Two system of ticket of single precinct
Write and can't amortize the vote law only
Divide the principle in the precinct
Outstanding favourable salamander
gerrymandering
Make and unite and set up making in the existing side by side of two system of ticket of single precinct
Issue Date: 2006
Abstract: 本研究旨在探討我國國民大會2005年6月7日複決通過修正憲法增修條文,其中之立法委員自第七屆起從兩百二十五人減半為一百一十三人,並採單一選區兩票制選舉產生之相關問題。 立法委員第七屆起一百一十三人,任期四年,連選得連任。自由地區直轄市、縣市七十三人,每縣市至少一人。自由地區平地原住民及山地原住民各三人。全國不分區及僑居國外國民共三十四人。區域立委席次依直轄市、縣市人口比例分配,按應選名額劃分同額選舉區選出。不分區及僑選立委依政黨名單投票選舉,由獲得百分之五以上政黨選舉票的政黨依得票比率選出,各政黨當選名單中,婦女不得低於二分之一。本研究就章節安排而言,第一章緒論第二章立法委員選舉機制之變革過程第三章立法委員單一選區兩票制之政策環境第四章外國國會議員實施單一兩票制之經驗檢視第五章台灣實施立法委員單一選區兩票制之問題與對策第六章結論。 回顧過去五十年間,立法委員選舉制度所採行之「單記不可讓渡投票法」(或通稱「大選區」制),不但造成地方派系林立,黑金政治氾濫,賄選買票嚴重,立法委員提出之議題及其表現易走極端,而且影響立法院議事品質與效率。 另立法委員選區劃分原則及其他重要部份;一、如何規劃選區之原則,而符合公平正義?二、如何規劃單一選區兩票制?採併立制或聯立制?而符合台灣當前政治人文文化?三、檢討政黨門檻設置比例之規定,而能切合各政黨之發展?所謂論者不一、沸沸揚揚,各方關切此起彼落……。 選區劃分過程可能造成現任立委、地方派系與政黨之間利益的衝突,因區和鄉鎮市人口太多或太少,而必須進行跨區或跨鄉鎮市的行政區的選區整併與重劃時,應考慮地理上之相連性、生活圈的共通性,避免出現所謂「傑利蠑螈」(gerrymandering)的偏差作法,在美國有所謂黨派利益重分配的「傑利蠑螈」不當劃分情事。 選區劃分務須合乎公平代表性:即每位代表所代表的公民數應大致相當,除非性質特殊以避免在代表性上產生落差。區域保障原則性:根據憲法所定之選區劃分基本單位,都應保障其席次,而不論其人數之多寡,其目的在特別保障每一個選區劃分基本單位,都能推舉自己的代表,以將住民之意見反映於立法院,並保障該區域之利益。行政區域完整性:劃分選區時,應儘量配合與地方行政疆界一致,倘有區隔縮小之必要,界限是簡潔而連續的。建立公平公正之選區重劃機制性:以避免引發爭議。 單一選區兩票制是「一票選人、一票選黨」,台灣的制度依照習慣比較會傾向日本並立式,也就是區域票和政黨票分開計算;德國聯立式是區域當選席次扣除後,由政黨票決定各政黨總席次比例,再分配比例代表席次。鑑於德國聯立制,如某黨在小選區當選的席位,已超過該黨總當選名額,則該黨在政黨比例部分,將無法分配到任何名額。這種情況將造成該黨有競選活動,有提候選名單,選民有投政黨票,政黨也得相當多的選票,卻分不到任何席位的情事,致使投政黨的選票失去意義,有違我國選舉投票慣例,及國人的認知模式。若從這個角度看,似採日本並立制較為簡易可行,然本研究建議採德國聯立制較合乎當前政治需要及小黨生存發展。本研究擬以務實的研究態度研究出成果,能提供相關單位參考。
This research aims at probing into the referendum on June 7 , 2005 of national assembly of our country and repairing clauses again through revising the constitution, it is 113 people that the legislative committee member among them is reduced by half from 225 people from the seventh , and adopt the relevant problem that two system of ticket of single precinct elect. This research is respect to arranging the introduction is elected legislative committee member of chapter two the legislative foreign member of congress of environmental chapter four of policy of two system of ticket of committee member's single precinct of chapter three of the change course of the mechanism implements The experience of two single system of ticket inspects Taiwan of chapter five and implements the legislative question of two system of ticket of committee member's single precinct and conclusion of chapter six of the countermeasure. In the past 50 years, conduct that the legislative committee member's electoral system adopts ' write and can't amortize the vote law only ' (or generally called the ' large precinct ' and make), not only cause the local faction to stand in great numbers but also make the party discipline inside the legislative organ not raise apparently , influence the agenda quality and efficiency of legislative organ. Meanwhile, this kind of vote system exerts an extremely bad influence on political culture, including money politics overflows, it is serious to elect the problem of buying tickets through bribery, and the legislative committee member, in order to strive for the ticket source of the specific block, topic on it put forward and to go to extremes,. The principle and order of seats and establish how to stipulate in the legislative committee member's precinct ? First, how about plan the principle of the precinct, and accord with fair justice? Second, how to adopt two system of ticket of single precinct? Exist side by side and make? Unite and set up making? Accord with the present political humane culture in Taiwan? Third, carry out the threshold of proportion of political party to set up , develop in and the public will that really suit every political party? So-called theorist one, bubbling with noise, each side concern this one he set . It may cause and at present set up the conflicts of the interests among the committee , local faction and political party that the precinct divides the course, because district and villages and towns city population too many too little, must carry on transregional or step precinct of administrative area , villages and towns of city whole and with while rowing again, should consider person who link to each other , compatibility of life range of geography , avoid so-called deviation practice of ' the outstanding favourable salamander ' (gerrymandering ), there are ' the outstanding favourable salamander ' that assign again of interests of the so-called party groupingses to divide the feeling thing improperly in U.S.A.. So dividing in the precinct must conform with fair representativeness . Ensure the principle in the area. The administrative division is intact. Set up the fair and just precinct and row the mechanism again. Two system of ticket of single precinct is that ' one ticket is chosen , vote for the party ', system of Taiwan according to is it can inclined to Japan and vertical , that is to say regional separated form ticket of political party to calculate ticket relatively to used to; It is elected in the area that Germany unites vertically but determined the total proportion of order of seats of every political party by the ticket of political party after the deduction of order of seats, and then the allocation proportion represents the order of seats. Seeing that Germany unites and sets up making, the seat elected one party in the small precinct , the planned number that have already exceeded this party and is always elected, this party, in the part of proportion of political party, will be unable to assign any planned number . This kind of situation will cause this party to have the electioneering, propose the candidate list, the voter casts the vote of political party, the political party wins quite a lot of of the votes too, but can not divide the feeling thing of any seat, cause the ballot which throws the political party to lose the meaning, click looking from these, the vote convention that violate our country and elect, and compatriots' cognitive way, it is very difficult to explain clearly. Watch from the angle, in order to adopt Japan is it is it calculate between area and legislative committee member's order of seats of dividing into etc. respectively to make to exist side by side, like comparatively simple and easy and feasible, but research this is it adopt Germany is it is it make than conform with light party survival and development that politics need at present to set up to unite to propose. This research plans to work out the achievement with the practical research attitude, can offer the relevant unit to consult .
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0093102016%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85496
Other Identifiers: GN0093102016
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