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Title: 從國際海洋法中半閉海合作觀點論東海海域爭端之解決
A Study on the East China Sea Disputes Settlement from Semi-enclosed Sea Perspective
Authors: 王冠雄
Wang, Dustin Kuan-Hsiung
Lin, Jiann-Jang
Keywords: 半閉海
Semi-enclosed Sea
East China Sea Dispute
provisional arrangement
joint development
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 東海乃是位於中國大陸東部海岸與太平洋之間的半閉海,其周邊海域包括中國大陸、日本、臺灣,甚或韓國等沿海國偌大的紛爭,主要因素則溯自1970年代,聯合國亞洲及遠東經濟委員會的「聯合探勘亞洲近海地區礦物資源合作委員會」(Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas)專家指出,東海海域之大陸礁層可能是世界上石油蘊藏最豐富的區域。 東海海域內的油氣資源是上述沿海國任何一方主要需求而欲極力爭取因素之一,同時該區域亦有釣魚臺列嶼主權、專屬經濟海域及大陸礁層延伸主張等爭議,因此若將資源開發議題與主權主張共同討論,則將使討論議題複雜化,並導致資源開發以及主權問題均無法形成共識之窘境。從《海洋法公約》規定,資源的共同開發(joint development)或共同合作(joint cooperation)是列入解決爭議糾紛的考量途徑之一,例如《海洋法公約》第74條第3項與第83條第3項所規範的「臨時安排」(provisional arrangement)及第123條「半閉海」(semi-enclosed sea)規定有關沿海國互相合作,協調海洋生物資源的管理、養護、探勘和開發等即是。因此,透過相關項目的共同開發與共同合作,建立彼此間的互信,創造進一步合作的氣氛,將有助於爭端海域之解決。 全球海域中相關沿海國合作的實踐多所存在,尤其是爭議海域,相關國家大都願意本著務實精神,進行實質效益的合作,且不乏成功案例。實踐部分包含了石油天然氣的共同開發,以及漁業資源的利用;不管是海床資源與漁業資源的共同開發,抑或共同合作,均顯現出一個共同特點,即是國家間基於理性的考量而願意放下對主權或是管轄的堅持,取而代之的是彼此對於資源探勘、開發與利用之相互合作。亦即儘管相關海域存在爭議,但閉海、半閉海合作是具可行性的,且符合《海洋法公約》在臨時安排及閉海、半閉海沿海國合作義務規範上之精神。爰本文從國際海洋法中「閉海與半閉海」之合作觀點及國際實踐去思索東海海域爭端解決模式之可行性,將合作項目與層次由功能性的項目入手,由簡單、不複雜、較具可行性的項目著手先行,並逐步擴大合作的效應,將有利於整體合作與互信環境的建立,對於維護東亞區域和平穩定的國際環境應有所助益。
The East China Sea is a semi-enclosed sea located between the east coast of Mainland China and the Pacific Ocean. There have been disputes in its surrounding waters involving its coastal states such as People's Republic of China, South Korea, Japan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan). These disputes could be attributed to the comments made by the experts of Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas of U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, because in the 70’s they indicated that the oil reserve in the continental shelf of the East China Sea might be the richest in the world. The richness in oil and gas reserve in the East China Sea is one of the major reasons, which results in the active claim for the rights from the above mentioned coastal. At the same time, other controversial disputes in this region include: the Diaoyutai Islands’ sovereignty issue, exclusive economic zone and extended continental shelf issue, etc. Therefore, the attempt to deal with the issues of resource development and the claim of sovereignty at the same time will make the issues more complicated and might lead the problem into a dilemma that is difficult to reach any consensus. According to the “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”(UNCLOS), joint development of resource and joint cooperation would be a considered one of the solutions to solve disputes. For example, the provisional arrangement (under article 74 paragraph 3 and article 83 paragraph 3), and the reference to that “coastal states should cooperate with each other to coordinate the management, conservation, exploration and exploitation of the living resources of the sea” (under article 123). Thus, through joint development and joint cooperation, establishing mutual trust and create an atmosphere for further cooperation will help resolve the disputes of sea areas. There have been international practices of the cooperation among relevant coastal states in global sea areas, particularly in the controversial sea areas. There have been successful stories of countries willing to conduct substantive cooperation in a pragmatic spirit. Demonstrations of the above mentioned practices include joint development of petroleum and natural gas, as well as the utilization of fishery resources. Whether to jointly develop seabed resources and fishery resources or to jointly cooperate, all of the practices indicate a common feature, that is, the States concerned, based on rational considerations, to are willing to drop their persistence over sovereignty or jurisdiction, and to replac by mutual cooperation with each other for the resources exploration, development and utilization. Despite the controversy in relevant sea areas, enclosed seas and semi-enclosed seas cooperation are still possible, as it conforms to the spirit of cooperation between coastal states as stated in the UNCLOS. This article aims to examine the feasibility on the settlement of the East China Sea dispute, proceeding from cooperation on simple and less complicated items, gradually expanding its effects, hoping to bring benefits and to establish mutual trust in from such cooperation , to foster regional peace and stability in East Asia as well as international community.
Other Identifiers: G080136001F
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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