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Title: 聯合國「國家保護責任」(R2P)理念之發展與實踐: 以利比亞及敘利亞為例之分析
Research on the United Nations’ Responsibility to Protect (R2P): The Case Analysis on Libya and Syria
Authors: 陳文政
Chen, Wen-Cheng
Liu, Ying-Chu
Keywords: 國家保護責任
responsibility to protect
humanitarian intervention
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 1990年代冷戰結束後,國際和平與安全的局勢及議題逐漸質變,衝突類型已從昔日國家間戰爭(interstate war),轉變為國內戰爭(civil war)或是內部大規模暴行(internal violence perpetrated on a massive scale)等新型態衝突型式,而伴隨著此衝突型式的轉變與國際法對於人權與人道的注意與重視,國際社會逐漸重視因國內衝突所造成大量傷亡、饑荒、疾病及難民等問題,對於「人道干涉」的需求日益增加,隨著諸多之國際實踐而漸成為國際法上「不干涉原則」之例外。但雖然「人道干涉」在保護人權方面得到諸多肯定及重視,但其合法性仍舊是一爭議性問題,國際社會仍須要一個足以支撐「人道干涉」行動合法性論述的機制。 2001年「干預與國家主權國際委員會」(International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, ICISS)為解決聯合國對於前述新型態人道危機問題的迫切需求,提出《國家保護責任》(Responsibility to Protect)之概念,在國際社會引起諸多討論及重視,而後,此10餘年間其概念與內涵亦有逐步發展與轉變。本論文首先就「國家保護責任」原則發展前之脈絡背景作介紹,而後就2001年「干預與國家主權國際委員會」提出之《國家保護責任》報告做內容說明,釐清「國家保護責任」之概念定義與內涵,並且就其於國際社會上發展與轉變之情形提出分析與說明。除了學術及法理上之討論外,本文將應用個案研究法與比較分析法,提出利比亞及敘利亞之案例,以研究「國家保護責任」於國際實踐上之運用情形,並嘗試比較與分析此兩案例之差異及對「國家保護責任」於國際實踐上之挑戰與問題,就其未來可能之發展與機遇提出結論與評析。
With the arrival of the 1990s, and the end of the Cold War, the prevailing complacent assumptions about non-intervention did at last come under challenge as never before. The international quintessential peace and security problems, became not interstate war, but civil war and internal violence perpetrated on a massive scale. With the break-up of various Cold War state structures, and the removal of some superpower constraints, conscience-shocking situations repeatedly arose, above all in the former Yugoslavia and in Africa. The end of the 20th Century marked a change in the nature of armed conflict: large inter-state wars were replaced by violent internal conflicts, where the vast majority of casualties are now civilians. The needs for humanitarian intervention is getting higher, it seems to become the exception of non-intervention principle. There are controversies about the legality of humanitarian intervention, it needs a new framework to support its idea. The term Responsibility to Protect was first presented in the report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) in December 2001. The Commission had been formed in response to Kofi Annan's question of when the international community must intervene for humanitarian purposes. This research will first review the background of the development of the concept “responsibility to protect”(R2P) and then describe the detail in ICISS report. This research will also review the evolution of the concept since 2001, analysis and compares two cases (Libya and Syria). Finally in the conclusion of this research, the author will disused the controversy, challenges and suggestions of the concept of “responsibility to protect” in the future.
Other Identifiers: G0699360083
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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