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China's foreign policy under Xi Jinping toward Mongolia: the characteristics and trend
China’s foreign policy
Ever since the financial crisis of 2008, the relations between great powers underwent dramatic changes within a few years. As a result of political and economic power shifts, major powers have gradually adjusted their foreign strategies and policies. Against this backdrop, China’s foreign policy entered a new era as its new state leader, Xi Jinping, came to power. As a rising power, China’s top foreign policy priority is to consolidate its power in the backyard, while Beijing strengthens its strategic deployment both in the South China Sea and East Asia and expands its global influences. In fact, China has always attached great importance to its security of the northern borders, which can be demonstrated by the building of the greatest historical heritage—The Great Wall. Historically, China had suffered tremendous security threats from the Huns, the Mongol Empire and the Soviet Union (Russia). Therefore, safeguarding its northern borders is an important cornerstone for China to expand its geopolitical sway, specifically toward the oceans. After the Cold war, China restored its relations with Russia. The two countries then jointly established the “Fortress area” under the framework of SCO in Central Asia. However, due to its different political system, Mongolia has never joined this political security “Fortress area”. China's foreign policy toward Mongolia cannot be fully interpreted and analyzed from a merely bilateral perspective. The impact of great-power interactions and changes in the balance of power among them have to be taken into consideration. Therefore, this thesis aims to analyze the strategies of China’s foreign policy after Xi Jinping came to power and further explores the trend of China’s policies toward Mongolia by applying the theoretical perspective of offensive realism.
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