Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85377
Title: 政策性保險與社會安全功能關聯性之研究
Government Sponsored Insurance and Social Security Correlation Analysis
Authors: 劉宗榮
黃人傑
Liu, Tsong-jen
Huang, Jen-Jeh
陳定輝
Chen, Ting-hui
Keywords: 政策性保險
福利多元主義
社會福利私有化
風險分派計畫
時效停止
專屬保險
Government Sponsored Insurance
Welfare Pluralism
Privatization of Social Welfare
Assigned Risk Plan
Stay of Statutory Limitation
Captive Insurance
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 自十八世紀工業革命以來,因農村人口大量流入城市,造成勞工人數上升、工資水準降低、童工與女工問題發生及職業災害頻傳,先進國家遂發展社會安全制度,以提供國民有關經濟安全及意外損害填補之保障。然而,自1970年代以來,或因石油危機導致全球經濟不景氣,或因人口老化,或因全球化影響導致產業出走,導致各該國興辦前述制度時產生嚴重虧損或給付減少等現象,學說稱為「福利國家危機」。針對該現象之改革方案極多,推廣「政策性保險」即為途徑之ㄧ。 「政策性保險」(Government Sponsored Insurance)係有別於傳統商業保險、社會保險之保險,其係依據國家法令強制某類團體或個人必須投保,或是經營保險事業之法人必須強制承保的險種,其特點為利用訂定民事契約方式達成原本應由政府透過社會保險、福利服務和社會救助所為社會安全制度建構的支出。根據統計,我國各級政府總體財政情形已有日趨惡化的情形,而民眾需求建構更為完善之社會安全體系之呼聲卻日益高漲,此與先進國家發展路徑如出一轍,因此當思患預防,避免問題之惡化。 因此,自1970年代中期,促使美國及英國及其他歐美先進國家主政者改弦更張,進行所謂福利多元主義之革命與新公共管理理論宣揚。因此我國政府與民間如何公平分配社會福利資源,積極整合並建構完善的社會安全體系確屬當務之急。本論文將從我國及先進國家以往經驗推行政策保險節省政府資源、貫徹受益者付費、保障民眾基本生活需求以及財富的創造等實證中,分析該項保險擴大實施之可行性及可能面對的問題。 經過強制汽車責任保險法制定、施行以及修正過程程序,本論文發現政策性保險實施,長期而言確可減輕政府財政負擔而不減損民眾權益,其主要原因在於透過民間公司自由競爭機制,以契約約定方式維持服務之品質。有關政策性保險法應具備重要內容,實應包括立法規範內容應明確,承保與理賠程序宜周詳,行政監理須公平而有效。政策建議在於相關事項須以特別法明訂或以法律授權方式辦理、保險法宜作重大修正、政府應加強宣導政策性保險優點、強化公司治理及行政監督機制、辦理社會保險之政府機關應全面檢討經營方式及政府應採取更為開放態度鼓勵政策性保險之實施。 法國著名企業家及經濟學者艾伯特(Michel Albert, 1930-)曾說:未來民主國家一切重大的政治社會論爭都離不開保險的主題。以今(2005)年初以來國內發生受虐女童無法在首善之都台北市找到加護病床、醫生與家屬在醫院互毆、病死豬肉及其他黑心食品供消費者食用等震驚社會大眾之消息,以及諸如全民健保財務吃緊等議題,艾氏所言確實有其價值。而此亦為本文研究之目的。
Government Sponsored Insurance and Social Security Correlation Analysis Large population in the countryside had immigrated to city that caused the number of labor to go up, the level of wages to go down, and the problems of child labor and female labor and occupational hazards to occur since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The social security system was then programmed in the developed countries for the economic protection of citizens and for the remedy of accidents and losses. However, the aforementioned social security system experiences serious loss or insufficiency in each nation due to the global depression as a result of oil crisis, the aging population, and the emigration of industry as a result of globalization since 1970. Scholars have it known as “welfare state in crisis”. There are several remedial measures available for the said crisis, to name few, promoting “government sponsored insurance” is one of them. “Government sponsored insurance ” is different from conventional commercial insurance and social insurance since it is mandatory by law for the insurance coverage of one specific group or individual, or, it is mandatory for an insurance business entity to underwrite. The feature of government sponsored insurance is to cover the social security expense through civil contract instead of the social insurance, welfare service, and social security arranged by government. According to statistics, the macro-fiscal situation of the government is deteriorating and citizens demand a more comprehensive social security system that is no difference from the development in other advanced nations; therefore, it is urgent for the government to have a preventive measure developed immediately. Therefore, the administration of the United States, England, and other advanced nations in Europe and America have their policies changed since the mid-1970 to advocate welfare pluralism revolution and new public management theory. Therefore, it is important for our government and the community to share social welfare resources fairly and to have a comprehensive social security system integrated and constructed urgently. The feasibility and potential risk of the social security system in practice will be analyzed in the text by deduction made from the resources saved by our and international government in conducting government sponsored insurance, paying insurance premium, protection of citizen’s basic life demand, and creation of wealth. Through the stipulation, enforcement, and amendment of Compulsory Automobile Liability Insurance Act, it is validated in the text that the enforcement of government sponsored insurance system in a long run does help eliminate fiscal burden of government without compromising the welfare of citizens since it is going through the competition mechanism in private sector and to maintain service quality through agreement. The content of government sponsored insurance law includes clearly defined provisions, detailed insurance underwriting and settlement procedure, and fair and effective administration management. Suggestions made by the research include stipulating special law or special authorization for the process of events, substantial amendment of Insurance Act, advertising the advantages of government sponsored insurance by government, reinforcing insurance company management and administrative management mechanism, responsible governmental institutes for social insurance reviewing the insurance operation, and government adopting open-policy to encourage the practice of government sponsored insurance. Michel Albert, French entrepreneur and economist, said: “All political and social disputes in democratic nations are about insurance.” From the shocking news of the abused girl who could not be hospitalized in Taipei (2005) for proper medical treatment, the fist fight between the doctors and patient’s families, the pork with disease and other questionable foods served to consumers, and the financial difficulty of National Health Insurance, the assertion of Michel Albert is not groundless. Therefore, this study is indeed with a grand purpose.
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http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85377
Other Identifiers: G0089110005
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