Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85374
Title: 台灣政冶文化轉型之研究
A study onTaiwan political cultre transformation
Authors: 陳春生
Cheng Trang Sen
黃煌智
Water.HUANG
Keywords: 民主化
現代化
政冶文化
政冶文化轉型
Taiwan political culture
Modernization democratization
citizen's culture
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract:   台灣是一個以中國儒家思想為主的多元文化國家。歷史上,一直是沒有產生自主性的政權,加上威權體制長久以來的影響,使台灣的政治文化,一直都是臣民文化居主導地位的社會。然而從1990年代起,台灣逐步建立民主政治制度,縱使許多人對此制度仍有指謫,但臺灣的民主形式與內涵,至今仍穩定運行,這表明台灣的民主政治已經有了堅固的社會心理基礎,而且得到台灣主流社會的認同和支持。這種社會心理的認同和支持,就是一種參與者的政治文化。從臣民型態的政治文化,轉型到參與型的政治文化,台灣是如何轉型成功呢? 轉型中碰到那些問題?轉型後碰到何種困境?台灣人民要如何解決這些困境?本文對台灣政治文化轉型的原因與動力,對轉型後的困境及解決之道,擬作深入的分析。   本論文的中心論點是:台灣自1949以來的農業經濟,進步到工業經濟,於是中產階級興起,社會運動蓬勃發展,民間人士的民主化追求及執政者的民主改革以及國際大環境的改變,是推動台灣政治文化轉型的根源和動力;國家認同的分歧及台灣意識與中國意識之爭是台灣轉型後的困境。解決之道則是建立新的國家認同,並經由民主鞏固的途徑形塑現代的公民文化成為台灣的主流政治文化,如此才算轉型成功。 五0年代經濟的進步改變了台灣社會的經濟社會結構,使台灣從一個以農業為主的社會轉變成為一個現代化的工業社會,都市化加深,中產階級興起,衝擊並瓦解了台灣傳統政治文化的基礎,促成人民對政治參與意識的成長,政治參與意識乃逐漸上升。在台灣社會逐步進入工業社會的過程中,台灣社會結構的變化、人民教育水平的提高,新聞傳播的發展,直接影響到台灣人民政治參與的意願。這種政治參與文化的形成,是經由兩個管道同時進行的;一方面是通過台灣政治反對派的一系列政治運動,使許多政治參與的理念普及並深入台灣人民之中;另一方面台灣社會政治參與意識的提昇也經由國民黨政府的政治改革及政治參與的訓練,如自1950年起即定期舉行的地方自治選舉,以及後來中央民代的增補選等,使民主政治、政治參與、選賢與能等等現代民主理念逐漸普及化,政治參與成為台灣人民生活的重要內涵,參與型的政治文化遂成為台灣九0年代主流的力量。 除了內部環境的轉變促成台灣政治文化的轉型,同時,國際環境的外部條件對台灣政治文化從臣民型轉向參與型也發揮了重大的作用。杭廷頓(Samul. Huntington)所述的第三波民主化浪潮,亦衝擊台灣民主化的歷程,美國等西方國家對台灣政治民主化的過程亦扮演了重要的角色。 然而進入二十一世紀的台灣,參與型的政治文化仍不足應付台灣轉型的需求,熱情的人民雖是改革的動力,但往往也成為民主鞏固的障礙。此時,理性冷靜的公民文化的形塑,是堅固台灣民主政治最重要的工作。   參與型的政治文化已然在台灣確立,1990年代之前的威權體制已成功轉型為民主體制,而且這個民主體制將會持續下去。然而,為追求更鞏固的民主體制,轉型後的台灣政治文化還有那些需要調整?本論文認為公民文化的形塑將是台灣政治文化發展的目標,透過公民意識及公民能力的培養,以型塑台灣的公民文化,再經由改進學校公民教育、發展社區總體營造並推動非營利組織以琣養公民能力,逐漸建構以公民認同為基礎的國家認同,進而建構穩健成熟的公民文化。也唯有建構穩健成熟的公民文化,台灣的民主政治才能順利由民主化進入到民主鞏固,而非民主崩潰。
Chinese Confucianism. In history, it has been the regime not producing independence all the time , add authoritative system influence for a long time , make Taiwan political culture, society that all the time all been subject's culture occupies the leading status. But from 1990 times, Taiwan sets up democratic political system progressively , even if a lot of people mean and banish this system, but the democratic form and intension of Taiwan, still run steadily so far, this indicates that there is a firm social psychological foundation in democratic politics of Taiwan, and get the approval and support of the mainstream society of Taiwan. Approval and support of such social psychology, but a kind of participant's political culture. From the political culture of the subject type attitude, make the transition political culture to arrive person who participate in, Taiwan how about make the transition and succeed in? Meet those questions while making the transition? Which kind of predicament is met after making the transition? How should the Taiwanese people solve these predicaments? Reason and motive force why this text makes the transition to the political culture in Taiwan, to the predicament and solution after making the transition , plan to make a deep analysis. The centre argument of this thesis is: The agricultural economy since 1949 in Taiwan, progresses to the industrial economy, then the middle class rises, social sport grow vigorously, folk democratization of personage pursue and democratic reform and international great change of environment of person in power, it is origin and motiveforce of promoting the political culture in Taiwan to make the transition; Difference , consciousness of Taiwan and China's consciousness battle of the national approval are the predicament after making the transition of Taiwan. The solution is to set up new national approval , and mould modern citizen's culture and become political culture of mainstream of Taiwan via the way with stable democracy, calculate and make the transition so successfully. The progress of economy changed the economic social structure of the society of Taiwan in five 0 times , make Taiwan change and become a modernized industrial society from a society relying mainly on agriculture, urbanization is strengthened, the middle class rises, has assaulted and disintegrated the foundation of the traditional political culture in Taiwan, facilitating people's growth of the political sense of participation, the political sense of participation is rising gradually. While Taiwanese society enters industrial society progressively , the change of the social structure of Taiwan, improvement of people's level of education, the development of the dissemination of news, influence the will that Taiwanese people's politics is participated in directly. Participated in the forming of culture, carried on at the same time via two channels in this kind of politics; On one hand pass a series of political movements of the political opposition faction of Taiwan, the idea of making a lot of politics participated in is popularized and deepened among the Taiwanese people; Training participating in the political reform and politics of the Kuomintang government too in promotion of the sense of participation of society and politics of Taiwan on the other hand, for instance from 1950 promptly regularly local autonomy election when it hold,and later take the place of the people not central augment not selecting etc., the modern democratic idea is popularized and melted gradually to make the democratic politics , politics participated in , selected virtuously with wait a moment, politics is participated in becoming important intension of the people's lives in Taiwan, the political culture of the participating in type then becomes strength of the mainstream of nine 0 Taiwanese timeses . Except the transition of the inside environment facilitates the transition of the political culture in Taiwan, meanwhile, the external condition of the international environment played a great role from subject types too to the participating in type to the political culture in Taiwan. Samul.Huntington third wave democratization tide of Huntington, also assaulting the western countries , such as the course of democratization of Taiwan , U.S.A. ,etc. will also play an important role to the course of the democratization of politics of Taiwan. But enter Taiwan in the 21st century, the political culture of the participating in type is not still enough to deal with the demand that Taiwan make the transition, although hospitable people are the motive force of the reform, often become the obstacle with stable democracy. At this moment, reason calm citizen culture mould, firm Taiwan democratic politics most important work. The political culture of the participating in type has already become a fact and established in Taiwan, the authoritative system before 1990 times has already succeeded in making the transition as the democratic system, and this democratic system will continue. But, in order to pursue more stable democratic system, are there those in the political culture of Taiwan after making the transition to need adjusting? It is goals of the political and cultural development of Taiwan that the ones that think citizen's culture in this thesis will be moulded , through the cultivation of awareness of the obligations of citizens and citizen's ability , mould citizens of Taiwan culture with the type, and then educates , develops the community to build and promote nonprofit organization overallly in order to raise citizen's ability via improving the school citizen, build and construct and consider the basic national approval with the citizen gradually, and then build and construct sane and ripe citizen's culture. Only build and construct sane and ripe citizen's culture too, the democratic politics of Taiwan could enter into democracy to consolidate smoothly from democratization , but not democracy collapses .
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