Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85355
Title: 中日東海油氣爭議之競合研究
The competition and cooperation between China and Japan on the Dispute about East China Sea Oil& Gas Fields
Authors: 吳忠吉
Wu, Chung-Chi
林秀芬
Lin, Hsiu-Fen
Keywords: 東海油氣田
能源
劃界
釣魚台列島
專屬經濟區
East China Sea Oil& gas fields
Energy
Demarcation
Diaoyu islands
Exclusive economic zone (EEZ)
Issue Date: 2006
Abstract: 能源危機會是下一波影響到國家安全的重大事件,各國無不積極拓展油源或是替代能源的開發與投入,致力在石油儲備機制的建立及能源安全保障,預先將可能的傷害減至最低,對於世界兩大進口油國中國與日本更是如此。 東海油氣田位在中國與日本之間的東海海域上,在1968年聯合國亞洲和經濟委員會的報告及目前的探勘數據顯示儲量豐富,大約有77億頓之多。東海油氣田爭議是發生在中國目前已投產的春曉油田, 因中國、日本東海距離最寬之處也不過僅有360海浬,對於聯合國海洋法規定專屬經濟區域的劃分為以陸地領土為基線起算200海浬來算,中國與日本的專屬經濟區顯有重複,春曉油田距離日本所謂的『等中間線』僅有5公里,故引發日本各界反彈,且因劃界也會牽涉到具有戰略位置與安全問題的釣魚台列島劃分。於是,中國、日本的劃界與能源爭議就此展開。因事涉國家利益加上中國與日本因民族意識問題近年關係冷淡,所以中國與日本針對東海油氣田雖已進行了三輪磋商(至本論文截稿前2006年2月),目前都未有實質進展。 中國對於主權問題一向堅持,東海油田事件對中國而言,非涉主權的架構下並在互惠的狀態,中國曾說可以考慮合作,因為對其而言解決國際紛爭,戰爭不是唯一的選項,而現階段「加入國際社會、開放市場經濟」才是全體中國人民共同努力的目標,而能源的穩定供給才能確保經濟發展不致中斷。能源主管層級的提高與能源政策列入重要指導方針,可以看出中國對於能源問題的重視,因為能源問題將是最有可能制肘中國未來發展的最大關鍵點。中國在2005年的石油對外依存度也已高達42.9%,如何確保油源的穩定供給、提昇能源利用效率及開發替代能源成為中國現階段的重要政策內容。 國土資源貧瘠的日本進口能源高達95%,資源匱乏導致日人對於能源的利用相當有效率。早在70年代末期,因石油危機使日本政府開始推動『脫石油及能源多樣化』,日本在新能源的開發與利用及節能的效率上成果婓然,致使石油在日本總體能源上降到50%以下。所以東海油氣田的發現對資源貧瘠的日本,可說得來不易,一向注重海權的日本當然不願意輕易放棄,如果能藉由釣魚台列島擴大專屬經濟區並同時達到防堵中國勢力東出太平洋,那更是再好不過的事了。 就東海事件而言,雖說牽涉到劃界與主權問題,解決的方式就因現階段中國與日本的關係停頓而平添許多變數。但因進入全球化,在各國都亟於致力經濟、政治整合,對照中國與日本的關係冷淡,再加入台灣問題、美國因素更使得東亞情勢相對緊張。 本論文就東海油氣田事件中,從劃界與能源爭議來延伸探討影響中國與日本在東海策略中之因素及兩國能源現況、政策與問題到雙方關係的互動來了解東海油氣田事件的發展,來推導出東海油氣田事件未來的方向與可能的解決方式。
Energy crisis is the next event to influence the national security. Every country is exploring the source of oil or developing the other substitutive energy aggressively, and devotes to establish the mechanism of storage of oil and guarantee supply to reduce or limit the oncoming damage. This is the same situation for the two large exporting countries of the world, China and Japan. East China Sea oil& gas fields are located within the region of East China Sea between China and Japan. According to the exploring report of ECAFE (United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East) in 1968 and recent reports, there are about 7.7 billion tons inside. The begin of the dispute of East China Sea oil & gas fields is the production of Chunxiao natural gas field (known as Shirakaba gas field in Japanese). The maximum width between China and Japan in East China Sea is only 360 nautical miles.According to the U.N. Law of the Sea, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) claimed by each country is 200 nautical miles (approximately 370 kilometers) from its coastline; it obviously overlaps between two countries. Furthermore, the Chunxiao natural gas field lies only 5 km from the median line of the two countries EEZ border claimed by Japan and the demarcation concerns about military and regional safeguard strategy of Diaoyu islands, it triggers Japanese to resist. For concerns of national benefits and nationalism between China and Japan, it has no any actual progress for East China Sea oil& gas fields after discussion 3 times till May 10, 2005. China always insists her sovereign rights on this event, though can take to consider the cooperation under the structure of non-sovereign rights concerning and the condition of mutual benefits. For China, military action is not the only selection to resolve the international disputes, “Join the global society and open the market economy” is the main target for her people to exert and only the stable energy supply can keep on the development of economics. Because the energy crisis could be the key to stop the development of China, the government is focus on the energy event seriously by raising the management level of energy department and bringing the energy policy into principle directives. It becomes major policy in present stage for China to guarantees the oil stably supply, promote the energy efficiency and develop substitution energy for the dependence of foreign petroleum increasing about 42.9%. Japan is poor in energy and about 95% energy is depending on import from other countries. The lack of energy source made energy usage very efficient for Japanese. In the end of 1970s, Japanese government set up “De-oil and great diversity of energy” policy for oil crisis. Under new source of energy developing and energy efficient promotion, oil was only about 40% among total energy supply of Japan. The discovery of East China Sea oil& gas fields is a chance to Japan, she will not give up to declare her right on it easily, and also a key to stop the power of China into the region of Pacific Ocean by Diaoyu islands claiming and EEZ expanding. It is concern with demarcation and sovereign rights in the event of East China Sea and the resolution of the dispute become variable for the cease of relationship between China and Japan. In contrast to the global enthusiastic over the integration of economics and politics, the situation of eastern Asia is tensional for the cold relationships between China and Japan, the issue of Taiwan and the interference of USA. Inthis study, the demarcation and energy dispute in the event of East China Sea are discussed. It also extends the study to deduce the future influence and find some possible ways to resolve the dispute by research on strategy, source and policy of energy, and on relationships between China and Japan.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G0069110010%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85355
Other Identifiers: G0069110010
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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