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Title: 1970-1990年代美濃客家人移民南美洲動機與跨國認同 ──以巴西、阿根廷為例
Immigration Motivation to South America and Transnational Identity of Meinong Hakka between 1970s to 1990s : A Case Study of Brazil and Argentina
Authors: 邱炫煜
Keywords: 華人移民
Chinese immigrants
Taiwanese immigrants
South America Chinese
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 「有海水的地方就有華人,有華人的地方就有客家人」。在華人移民史上無論是下南洋,還是前往美洲大陸,總是有客家人的身影。1949年中華民國政府遷往臺灣,為臺灣地區帶來大量人口,造成1950年後,臺灣地區除了人口急速增長問題外,尚存在著高失業率、食糧不足問題,促使當時臺灣地區官方與民間皆發出移民他國的聲浪。當時中南美洲國家因需農工專業人士開發當地,故向中華民國發出歡迎移民訊息,使得當時臺灣地區有不少人民移往中南美洲,尤其以移往南美洲的巴西、阿根廷人數最多。 本論文以高雄市美濃區客家人為研究對象,探討影響當時美濃地區客家人移民巴西、阿根廷之動機為何?並探討是否因相同動機影響他們回流臺灣,亦或再度移民第三國家?並以他們移民歷程與當地各族裔相處之情況,探討其對於自身跨國認同看法。 本研究以實証研究為主要研究取向,以文獻分析法及半結構式訪談為研究方法,訪問了十二位具有代表性的美濃移民者,以其移民歷程為主要研究材料,研究影響移民之動機,以及受訪者對族裔及國家之認同。研究結果發現,影響美濃地區客家人選擇移民南美洲最重要的因素是經濟因素;另一個重要因素是原居住國家的社會安全度;此外,已有親人移居巴西、阿根廷也是影響移民動機的另一個重要因素。再移民及回流動機則會受到南美洲國家經濟不穩定因素及社會安全度影響。在跨國認同方面,美濃人最認同「客家」身份,並因此項認同而影響其跨國認同態度。
"There is the sea where there are Chinese .There are Chinese where there are Hakka people." The history of Chinese immigrants to Southeast Asia or to the American continent does always appear Hakka figure. As the ROC government moved to Taiwan in1949, more and more Chinese people emigrated from mainland China to Taiwan and also caused the large number of population rapidly in Taiwan. In 1950 the fast population growth in Taiwan resulted in the problems of unemployment and food shortage in Taiwan at that time. In order to solve the problems, the residents in Taiwan urged the government to consider the issue of emigrant policy. Besides, the authorities in Central and South America needed more agricultural and industrial professionals to develop their countries. The message to the ROC has to welcome Taiwaners to move to South America, especially to Brazil and Argentina. In this study the Hakka people in Meinong as the research objects to explore the influence of emigrant motive of Meinong Hakka who moved to Brazil and Argentina. Moreover, to explore the influences of their return motive to go back to Taiwan, or re-immigration to other countries. With their immigrant stories and their existences together with local ethnic groups, and discuss their views on transnational identification. In this study, the researcher did the research with empirical research; document ana1ysis and semi-structured interviews as research methods. What this thesis adopted is the approach that empirical research combines with document ana1ysis and semi-structured interviews as research methods. The searcher interviewed twelve “representatives” “Meinong” ” immigrants” to record their immigrant stories as the main research material for studying the effects of immigrants motivation and identification on ethnicity and country. With the result of study, we can find that the economic factor is the most important influential one which urged Meinong Hakka to emigrate to South America. Another important factor is the social security safety of the country. Besides, the social networks also affect the motivation of migrant. The South American country's economic motives and social instability affect their decision about re-immigration or back to Taiwan. In terms of transnational identification, “Hakka" means important character to Meinong immigrants, and result in influence of their transnational identification attitude to country and culture.
Other Identifiers: GN0697800584
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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