Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85336
Title: 鄰邦商人:越南阮氏皇朝華人在東北沿海地區的經濟活動(1802-1884)
Chinese business men economic activities along the northeast coast of Vietnam during Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1884)
Authors: 楊聰榮
Tsung-Rong Edwin Yang
武氏緣
Vu Thi Duyen
Keywords: 越南
阮氏王朝
華人
貿易
Vietnam
Nguyen Dynasty
Chinese
comercial trading
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 越南東北部沿海地區的許多港埠,從十二世紀李朝時已經成為國家對外的重要貿易港口,該地區因為與中國靠近,所以西元二世紀已有華人來往,並於此落地生根,他們對於越南東北部的經濟發展貢獻卓著。十九世紀初阮朝統一越南,越南經濟展現了新的風貌。越南東北部雖然已經沒有當年的繁華,但仍然有重要而有特殊性的經濟地位。然而越南華人的相關研究,大部份的學術研究比較專注於研究中部與南部的華人,而忽略掉北部華人,尤其關於東北沿海地區華人的論文更為罕見。為何如此?筆者認為有以下幾個原因: 其一、由於北部華人人數遠少於中南部,致使學者忽略其重要性;其二、資料殘缺,研究不易;其三、越南北部華人已經完全融入越南傳統的社會,難以尋訪尚保留傳統生活方式之華人。 十八世紀末,英國東印度公司衰落之後,東南亞地區經濟恢復以華人為主角的形態。當時,中國跟東南亞各國的貿易不僅是傳統的朝貢貿易,而東南亞各國則成為中國出口奢侈品的大市場,於是中國與東南亞的貿易又發展出新的形態。由於人口壓力,嚴重的經濟壓力導致中國的東南沿海的廣東、浙江、福建地區的窮困人民大量移居海外;其中主要是小販、漁民、農民以及反清復明人士,他們多數至越南謀生,從此華人在越南形成了一個穩定社群,但經濟的主導力量還是華人,在這個時期越南稱之為「華僑」。華人經濟可分為合法與非法經濟活動兩大類。前者筆者將致力探討礦產、絲綢、糧食、香料、日用品與奢侈品的流通,而後者主要探討海盜、走私這兩大經濟活動。本論文將探討當時東北部沿海地區華人經濟形成的原因,特殊性以及其影響。最後,本文將探討華人在海防與廣寧兩大港口發展的過程中扮演者重要角色。
The research issue of Chinese people living in Vietnam has been researched by scholars for many years. However,all of the research papers have virtually focused on the Chinese population dwelling in the central and southern regions of the country,yet ignoring those dwelling in the northern region for the following probable reasons: first,the number of Chinese people in the northern region is far less than those living in the central and the southern regions,subsequently leading to a lack of interest among researchers; second,the shortage of research materials and historical monuments cause significant obstacles in the investigation among researchers; third,the Chinese people in the northern region have basically integrated with the regions’ traditional and local culture,subsequently making it difficult for researchers in accurately distinguishing the population from other ethnic groups. In Vietnam,the northeast region provides valuable information for researchers involved in the branches of geo-economics and geo-strategies. The North Bay is among one of the largest bays in Southeast Asia. Given the opportunities of acquiring abundant economic resources,the North Bay area was soon to be opened and developed in a way the ancient trading port of Van Don during the reign of King Ly Anh Tong in 1149. Situated close to the South China Sea,the Chinese people had migrated and traded with other merchants in the northeast coast since a very early period. It can be said that the Chinese people have actively contributed to the formation and development of the harbor system in the northern region. Nineteenth century was the century that witnessed important historical events in Vietnam and China. After the North-South separation and subsequent resolution of the civil war,unified Vietnam faced many challenges,especially in terms of economics. Although the northeastern coastal port system during this period was not as developed as was during previous centuries,this marked a critical period in Vietnam’s maritime economy. From the late eighteenth century onward after the weakening of the East India Company,the economic status of Chinese people started to drastically recover. During this time,the relationship between China and other Southeast Asian countries not only improved in terms of trade,but also eventually led to the region becoming China’s luxury goods market. After the end of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,China faced the challenge of accommodating an increasing population,subsequently leading Chinese nationals from provinces such as Guangdong,Zhejiang,and Fujian looking for new opportunities to start a new life elsewhere. Many of these migrants were small business owners,fishermen,farmers,and opponents the then-ruling Qing Dynasty. As the number of migrants continued to grow in Vietnam,a relatively stable community began to form. This research shows that the mainstream contribution towards the economic situation in the northeast region of Vietnam was largely due to overseas Chinese migrants. Recognizing the problem of Chinese citizenship in this region in the first half of the nineteenth century is extremely complicated; hence,I coin the phrase “neighborhood traders” in explaining the relationship between overseas Chinese and the Nguyen Dynasty. Chinese people economic activity in this region can be divided into two kinds of legitimate and illegitimate economic activities. The first part of dissertation focuses on legitimate economic activities of Chinese people under the administration of the Nguyen government in regards to mining,silk,food,flavoring,consumer goods,and luxury goods. The second part focuses on two kinds of illegal economic activities among Chinese pirates and smugglers. An important thing to note is that although the economic activities among Chinese people were either legal or illegal,these activities led to economic security in this region,as well as to the formation and development of port networks.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN060185019I%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85336
Other Identifiers: GN060185019I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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