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Title: 美國華裔第二代青年回流之探討
The Study of Second-generation Chinese Americans Returning to Taiwan
Authors: 邱炫煜
Chiu, Hsuan-Yu
Tsai, Ya-Hsun
Lin, Yin-Chun
Keywords: 回流動機
motives to return emigrate
return migrant
second generation
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 美國長久以來為臺灣民眾移民最多的國家,其中又以留學生為移民的主體,從一九六二年政府放寬國外留學規定後,留美學生人數大增。這些學生在完成學業後,多數留美就業,進而取得綠卡,成為美國公民。臺灣僑民外移時間主要在一九七零年後,特別是一九八○到一九九○這段期間。移民原因除了考慮美國薪資與社會福利結構優於臺灣外,也憂慮臺灣的教育品質,與國家安全。 經過幾十年,這些赴美臺灣移民子女,今日已成長為二十至四十歲的青年。近年來,這些年輕的美國華裔二代,回流臺灣的移民人數有增加的趨勢。為何這些年輕的華裔二代決定回流臺灣?他們認為今日臺灣的教育情況與需面對國際問題已無當年嚴峻,抑或臺灣有更吸引他們之處,使其不在乎臺灣環境的不利因素而願意回臺?本研究企圖深入剖析臺灣對年輕美國華裔二代的誘因,並探討他們回流的動向,對未來的計畫,以及在臺灣生活適應的困難,需要哪些協助……等因素。希望從中發現臺灣在國際人力市場中的優勢競爭力,同時也提供未來僑務參考。 由於回流人數缺乏完整的官方統計資料,本研究將參酌相關文獻資料與深度訪談結果做為撰寫參考。本研究採多元研究法,將文獻資料整理設計成半結構式問卷進行深度訪談。研究對象為二十二至三十八歲,回流臺灣的美國華裔二代,訪談人數共十四位。 根據研究結果,年輕華裔二代的回流大多不是單一因素,而是外在環境誘因與內在因素交互影響下所產生的決策。外在因素包括:臺灣便利的生活環境、友善的人文特質、就業考慮優勢。內在因素包括:文化追尋或族裔認同、人際紐帶與家庭因素……等。部分回流者的單一原因,是為了照顧回臺定居的父母,或返臺為接班家族事業而預做準備。 由於年輕華裔二代皆有臺灣生活經驗,因此在生活適應上難度較低,大多可以在三個月內完全適應,但是在職場文化方面的衝擊相對大了許多,包括公司倫理與溝通文化,皆是年輕華裔回流就業後需要面對的課題。此外,臺灣的低薪與超長工時,也會成為華裔回流後再度外移的主因。 從訪談中發現,若年輕華裔二代在童年時曾具備跟隨父母回臺居留的經驗,對臺灣的認同感較只回臺懇親者更強,他們大多希望未來能定居臺灣。對這些回流者而言,臺灣比出生地美國更像自己的故鄉。而對於只有返臺探親的年輕華裔子弟來說,臺灣是親切的地方,因此,他們很樂意在大學畢業後來臺尋求其他的生活體驗,可以是定居,也可以是生涯規劃的中繼站,甚或是前進中國的跳板。就整體而言,年輕華裔二代對未來發展的態度是開放的,充滿流動的可能,也充分展現了跨國主義的特色。
The chief reason Taiwanese emigrate to America is to study at a US university. With the relaxing of regulations in 1962, the number of Taiwanese studying in America rose rapidly. After graduating, the majority stayed in the US to find jobs, get Green Cards and eventually take up US citizenship. The largest wave of emigration came after 1970, peaking between 1980 and 1990. Reasons for leaving included the perception that pay and conditions and the social services infrastructure in America were all superior to what was on offer in Taiwan, added to which was concern about the quality of education in Taiwan, and about Taiwan’s national security. Several decades later, the children of those Taiwanese emigrants to the US are now between 20 and 40. In the past few years, the number of these second-generation Taiwanese-Americans who choose to reverse migrate to Taiwan has shown an increasing trend. The quality of education in Taiwan and Taiwan’s international status have changed little in the intervening years, so why is it that an increasing number of second-generation Taiwanese-Americans are prepared to overlook Taiwan’s disadvantages, and are willing to return? This research is an attempt to analyze more deeply the comparative advantages Taiwan has which appeal to second-generation Taiwanese-Americans, as well as to look more qualitatively into the trend towards reverse migration; such factors as what are their plans for the future, what difficulties do they face trying to fit in, what help do they need, and so on. In the absence of complete government figures on the reverse migration, this study uses as reference the available literature as well as the results of in-depth interviews. Various research methodologies were selected and the available literature collated to produce a semi-structured questionnaire to be used for in-depth interviews. The research subjects were second-generation Taiwanese-Americans ranging from 22 to 37 years old who had returned to Taiwan. The number of subjects was 22. As regards motives to reverse emigrate, the research results show that some young second generation Taiwanese-Americans making the decision to return are influenced not by one single factor but by the interaction of external and internal factors. External factors include: Taiwan’s comfortable lifestyle, the friendly character of local people, and the perception that it will be easier to get a job there than in the States. Internal factors include: cultural identification and the desire to seek one’s roots, interpersonal and familial ties and so on. Other returnees, however, may be driven by a single motivating factor: the need to look after ageing parents who have returned, or to take over the family business or get ready to do so. Most returnees, already having had some experience of living in Taiwan, find it relatively easy to adapt to day-to-day life here, usually settling in within three months. Some aspects of working life here, however, come as more of a shock, and once they start work, returnees face a difficult task adjusting to Taiwan’s business ethics, organizational culture and so on. In addition, Taiwan’s working culture of low salaries and long hours is cited as the main reason some returnees eventually re-emigrate. From the interviews, it can be seen that young returnees who previously had experience of living in Taiwan with their parents as children have a strong feeling of identification with Taiwan, and the majority of these intend to settle permanently. For them, Taiwan feels more like ‘home’ than their actual birthplace, the US. Other young returnees whose previous experience of Taiwan was merely making trips back and forth to visit relatives express feelings of closeness with Taiwan, making it a natural place to move to in search of new life experiences after graduating. They say that, while they might eventually settle in Taiwan, Taiwan could equally turn out to be a stage in their career path or even a stepping-stone to the Mainland. On the whole, young second-generation Taiwanese-American reverse migrants display an open-minded attitude overflowing with possibilities and a truly global outlook.
Other Identifiers: G0699800423
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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