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Title: 華風遠被到南溟:清末民初新馬華社與祭孔研究
As a deity-- The Confucianism Revival Movement in Singapore and Malaya in the late Qing and early Republic of China
Authors: 吳龍雲
Leng-Hoon Goh
Chen, Wan-Ling
Keywords: 祭孔
the ceremony of Confucius
Chinese community
Straits Settlements and the Native States of Malaya
Confucianism revival movement
Chinese Cohesiveness movement
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 十九世紀末二十世紀初之際,在各地主要的華人移民社群中皆出現過尊孔風潮,然而已對此最為熱中的區域當屬新馬一帶。本文研究區域聚焦於新馬,主要為吉隆坡、新加坡及檳城三個主要華人城市的活動,主要對象為祭孔及其相關社團及活動。 新馬大眾集體祭孔始自1899年吉隆坡各幫聯合祭孔,而新加坡在1908年到達高潮,檳城則至1911年始達高峰,進入1912年之後的尊孔運動在新馬華社仍在一段時間內起了重要的大眾凝聚作用。   本研究顯示,新馬地區初期受到海外維新份子鼓吹以及維新報刊的傳播,華社一時間引起尊孔風氣。直到清朝官方升祀孔為大祀,凝聚了新馬華社的群體認同。新馬大眾祭孔活動的趨向,表現出華人信仰對於社會的一種適應過程,由朝廷的下令號召尊孔開始,到流亡海外康梁的孔教支持者鼓吹的蘊釀,接著新馬當地華社商人的領導及推動,新馬華社的祭孔開始實踐並成為華社一股風氣,進入民國之後,華社領導層的更迭以及知識份子的主導,祭孔活動一則完全走入民間信仰祭典的其中之一,一則成為孔教會的會員活動。   本研究指出祭孔活動在新馬華社的在地發展及轉化,其社會意義在於跨幫社群的認同、大眾祭孔以及孔誕成為認可的公共假期。新馬華社轉化孔子的象徵符號,發展出本土的意識以強化華社群體認同,成為一場移民社會的在地化運動。   高深的儒家經典,並非普遍為一般民眾所能接受,由華社領導層的支持,民間化的慶典活動以及祭祀禮儀的實踐,使其融合為民間的文化生活,並在大眾生活之中,形成共同的文化認同,進而能凝聚族群。清末民初新馬的尊孔意識發展出一場移民社會在地化的尊孔活動強化了全體華社群體認同,成為一個短暫而精采的聚族運動。
The late 19th and early 20th centuries time, each main Chinese immigrate community arose up the revival of Confucianism movement, This thesis focus on the area of Straits Settlements and the Native States of Malaya, mainly for Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Penang, three main Chinese immigrate city, and the main objects are the ceremony of Confucius and the related activities. The purpose of this research is to re-establish the movement and explore the Confucianism in overseas Chinese. The very first ceremony of Confucius was held in Kuala Lumpur in 1899, but Singapore was arrived the high tide in 1908, Penang reaches the peak in 1911. This research demonstrated the Straits Settlements and the Native States of Malaya affected by the reformers in the initial stage. Until the Qing Dynasty official upgraded the ceremony of Confucius into the one of the most important ceremony, the social cohesion could be gathered by Confucius. The research carries the analysis out by the view of documentary-historical reviews, here brings up a contention that the Confucianism revival movement of the straits settlement and the native states is similar to a religious dissemination. At those times, it was a turbulent period of history, numerous Confucian scholars founded many Confucianism groups for the sake of change the fate of the empire and people. In the Straits Settlements and the native states, the sponsors tried to convince the Chinese immigrants the Confucianism could instead of the traditional Chinese religions. This thesis employed the newspapers, as“Bing Cheng RI Bao”,“ Tian Nan Xin Bao”,“Ri Xin Bao”,“Nan Yang Zong Hui Xin Bao”etc., to re-establish the movement. And tried to explain the movement was to transform the symbol of Chinese culture elite, and turned into a nativism to strengthen the Chinese identity. Under the Straits government, Confucianism seemed to develop freely, and according to the Chinese special characters of belief and religion, this movement can be considered as a Chinese cohesiveness revivalism.
Other Identifiers: G0698800490
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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