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Study of Relationship between Nationalism Development and Chinese Education in Thailand(1851-1957)
|Abstract:||近代泰國民族主義的發展與其現代化的進程關係密切。卻克里王朝自拉瑪一世(Rama I)立朝開始，即不停地為確立區域霸權地位與擴大國家領土與周邊國家進行一連串的戰爭。直到拉瑪三世為止，整個國家基本上屬於封建專制的政治形態。拉瑪四世(Rama IV)登基後，面對強大的西方資本帝國前來叩關並要求開放市場及建立關係，如何對抗西方勢力的威脅及鞏固王權地位的穩定成為拉瑪四世在位期間的兩大施政主軸。 為了避免像其他東南亞國家一樣成為西方強權的殖民地，拉瑪四世即開始思考改革過去不合時代的傳統制度及思想，推動泰國初步的國家現代化。其後拉瑪五世(Rama V)登基，在其父改革的基礎及其本身受過西式教育的背景下，積極引進西方的思想及制度進一步推動國家現代化的深度及全面性。拉瑪五世所推動的教育改革，派送大量皇室及貴族成員至歐洲接受新式教育，使泰國產生了首批具有現代思維的新式領導階層，同時也使民族主義的思想開始在泰國萌芽生根。至二十世紀初，泰國的民族主義意識已然大致成形，並開始對當時國內數量龐大且掌有絕對經濟優勢的華人感到一種來自異族的威脅。1911年中國民族革命的成功將當時的泰國華人的民族主義及對中國的政治認同帶向高峰，卻也同時刺激了泰國民族主義的迅速發展 。
The development of Thai Nationalism in the past two centuries went very closely to the procedure about the modernization of this country. Since Rama I became the new king , the Dynasty of Chakri had experienced a series of wars with countries around it as expanding territory in taking top status among area powers. Until Rama III, the kingdom were basically still under the political system of very traditional feudalism. When it came to Rama IV, the western capitalism superpowers dashed to Southeastern Asia and the kingdom were also facing the strong requesting for open of market and formal political relations. Not being the same as other Southeastern Asian countries ,the colonies of those western superpowers, the king Rama IV had started to think about fixing traditional national systems and made the modernization plan for the kingdom. Since Rama V, the king kept doing changing for nation’s modernization under the base of his father’s plans. Rama V actively welcomed and received the western ideas and systems for making the continuous progress more widely and deeply. Education, especially occupied the central point of the plans, the king sent many imperial and noble family members to Europe for receiving the modern western education. This decision made the old kingdom owned the first group of new leading members with modern ideas about managing the country. At the same time, the idea about nationalism was also brought to and born the very first time in Thailand and had been strongly influential day by day. At the beginning of 20th century, the formation of nationalism in Thailand was almost completed . The Thai society started to feel the threat from Chinese people who lived in Thailand long time and held the main business but never treated as foreigners . The success of 1911 nationalism revolution in China gave the overseas Chinese feeling about nationalism and identity for China but at the same time brought the confrontation between the two nationalisms. By the confrontation, the Thai government started to take some political actions to limit the development of Thai-Chinese. Thai government hoped that Thai-Chinese kept going to assimilate in Thai society and went being loyal to the kingdom. On the other side, the Thai-Chinese who had been enjoying the free living and business environment without any restrictions in Thailand now felt the pressure from Thai government. They tried to reacted to the new political rules and also asked for support from Chinese government. After the coup in 1932, the power of Thai nationalism went to the top position and the new government tried very hard to seek for the good relationship with Japan. Thus, the new government again started to take actions but this time harder than before to restrict the development of Thai-Chinese. The yearly amount of immigrants were sharply deducted , the Chinese schools were also ruled by the strict laws, some were even closed. Since 1911, the Chinese government positively sought every possible way in connecting with overseas Chinese, take education as the way in promoting the nationalism and the nation-identity among these people close to China. These actions made the image of Chinese schools in political more than educational function. Also, the series new laws for the government of Thailand made all problems about Thai-Chinese not just the inner racial problem, but also the problem of international relationships with some countries. The background of Thailand’s Chinese policies and actions were complicated as they stayed between three main topics: the development of Thai nationalism, the international relationship condition and the role and function of Chinese education in Thailand. The anti-Chinese policy and the resistance from Thai-Chinese connected closely to the Chinese democratic revolution, also ended by the time Chinese civil war finished. After 1949, The Thai-Chinese had already made the choice in high level to be part of Thai society by the practical reasons. At the same time, after the fading away of political function for Chinese schools, the development of Thai-Chinese education was almost ended. Comparing to other Chinese in south-east Asia, the reason why Thai-Chinese didn’t construct such education system like Malaysian Chinese is special and curious. Also, the anti-Chinese policy made Thai-Chinese accidently involved highly in Thai society showed also very different reflection from other south-eastern Asian countries which also took the same policy to Chinese there. The study purpose of the thesis is focus on more understanding about the characteristics of Thai-Chinese society. The analyzing for roles and functions which Chinese education acted in different periods of Thai history is also one of the main purpose for this thesis.
|Appears in Collections:||學位論文|
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