Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85306
Title: 泰國民族主義發展與華文教育關係之研究(1851-1957)
Study of Relationship between Nationalism Development and Chinese Education in Thailand(1851-1957)
Authors: 吳龍雲
Goh, Leng-Hoon
劉漢文
Liu, Han-Wen
Keywords: 泰國
民族主義
華文教育
華人社群
Thailand
Nationalism
Chinese Education
Overseas Chinese
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 近代泰國民族主義的發展與其現代化的進程關係密切。卻克里王朝自拉瑪一世(Rama I)立朝開始,即不停地為確立區域霸權地位與擴大國家領土與周邊國家進行一連串的戰爭。直到拉瑪三世為止,整個國家基本上屬於封建專制的政治形態。拉瑪四世(Rama IV)登基後,面對強大的西方資本帝國前來叩關並要求開放市場及建立關係,如何對抗西方勢力的威脅及鞏固王權地位的穩定成為拉瑪四世在位期間的兩大施政主軸。 為了避免像其他東南亞國家一樣成為西方強權的殖民地,拉瑪四世即開始思考改革過去不合時代的傳統制度及思想,推動泰國初步的國家現代化。其後拉瑪五世(Rama V)登基,在其父改革的基礎及其本身受過西式教育的背景下,積極引進西方的思想及制度進一步推動國家現代化的深度及全面性。拉瑪五世所推動的教育改革,派送大量皇室及貴族成員至歐洲接受新式教育,使泰國產生了首批具有現代思維的新式領導階層,同時也使民族主義的思想開始在泰國萌芽生根。至二十世紀初,泰國的民族主義意識已然大致成形,並開始對當時國內數量龐大且掌有絕對經濟優勢的華人感到一種來自異族的威脅。1911年中國民族革命的成功將當時的泰國華人的民族主義及對中國的政治認同帶向高峰,卻也同時刺激了泰國民族主義的迅速發展 。 中泰兩大民族主義並進之下,泰國開始採取制訂法規限制華人發展的措施,希望能以較溫和的方式加速華人同化於泰國社會並在政治上忠誠於泰國。另一方面,在泰國皇室的政策性保護之下長期自由發展未受限制的華人社群,此時因受到壓制而逐漸產生調整的心態並同時受到中國與泰國兩大民族主義的影響。在中國向海外華人傳播民族主義的方針下,迅速發展的泰國華文教育使泰國民族主義份子對華人社群的負面感受更加尖銳。1932年泰國的不流血政變成功後,泰國的民族主義勢力越加高漲,加以當時泰國軍派勢力積極與日本發展關係,民族主義者視泰國境內華人社群為中國政治勢力的「海外代理人」,並意圖使泰國陷於艱困的國際地位,使得長期以來對華人社群一貫採取溫和同化政策的泰國統治階層開始對華人社群態度轉趨嚴厲。 泰國統治階層從減緩華人人口增長的速度及限制華文教育的發展兩方面來達到加速同化華人社群於泰國社會的目的。華人新移民數量在以「識字能力」為入境的條件下嚴重縮減,華文學校的興辦也受到法規的管制而被嚴格限制或勒令關閉。 在泰國民族主義的強力影響下,減少「新客華人」數量的增加,事實上可視為泰國統治階層對華人社群進行「自然同化」的措施之一,而在「土生華人」比例日高的情況下,華文教育自然地就會成為類似華人社群向「泰化」目標過渡的橋樑。從中國的角度來看,中國政府在1911年之後便積極發展與海外華人社群之間的緊密關係,並以興辦新式華文教育的方式推動海外華人對中國的愛國主義及政治認同。此舉使得當時的海外華文學校的性質,具有政治性明顯地大過教育性的特色。泰國統治階層對華人社群及華文教育限制政策的制定及執行,並非僅僅只是單純的國內民族問題,其執行的寬與鬆在很大的程度上亦與當時泰國所面臨的國際政治情勢有很大的關聯性。而華人社群對泰國新式知識份子所產生的威脅感,亦非全然因為來自中國民族主義向外擴張的影響,泰國華人社群在長期發展的過程中所產生的「在地性問題」對泰國社會的負面影響,也是泰國統治階層對華人社群開始產生危機意識的來源之一。 綜而言之,二十世紀初的泰國華人問題,是包含內部因素與外部因素的綜合性問題。泰國華人政策的變化,是結合了泰國民族主義發展、國際政治情勢的影響及泰國華文教育角色與作用三者交互影響的複雜議題。 泰國對華人的「強制同化」及華人社群對泰國官方政策的對應,起於中國民族革命的成功而也幾乎同時終於中國內戰的結束。1949年以後,泰國華人社群在極大的程度上已基於生存的現實考量而選擇積極同化於泰國社會,而當華文學校的政治性角色及作用消失後,泰國華文教育的發展也幾乎告終。以泰國華人社群在數量上的龐大及經濟影響上的強勢,但卻未如馬來西亞華人社群一般發展出獨立的華教系統乃是一個令人好奇且特殊的現象。而在發展民族主義的前提下,泰國統治階層對華人社群所採取的經濟保護而政治強勢的同化政策,最終也近乎完全成功地達成了目標,使華人社群高度認同並積極融合於泰國社會,其結果也與其他同樣發展民族主義且施行限制華人社群發展政策的東南亞國家大為不同。關於此議題的研究,將有助於深入了解泰國民族主義的發展歷程,重新檢視泰國華人社群的特性的成因與泰國華文教育在不同的歷史階段角色與作用的變化。
The development of Thai Nationalism in the past two centuries went very closely to the procedure about the modernization of this country. Since Rama I became the new king , the Dynasty of Chakri had experienced a series of wars with countries around it as expanding territory in taking top status among area powers. Until Rama III, the kingdom were basically still under the political system of very traditional feudalism. When it came to Rama IV, the western capitalism superpowers dashed to Southeastern Asia and the kingdom were also facing the strong requesting for open of market and formal political relations. Not being the same as other Southeastern Asian countries ,the colonies of those western superpowers, the king Rama IV had started to think about fixing traditional national systems and made the modernization plan for the kingdom. Since Rama V, the king kept doing changing for nation’s modernization under the base of his father’s plans. Rama V actively welcomed and received the western ideas and systems for making the continuous progress more widely and deeply. Education, especially occupied the central point of the plans, the king sent many imperial and noble family members to Europe for receiving the modern western education. This decision made the old kingdom owned the first group of new leading members with modern ideas about managing the country. At the same time, the idea about nationalism was also brought to and born the very first time in Thailand and had been strongly influential day by day. At the beginning of 20th century, the formation of nationalism in Thailand was almost completed . The Thai society started to feel the threat from Chinese people who lived in Thailand long time and held the main business but never treated as foreigners . The success of 1911 nationalism revolution in China gave the overseas Chinese feeling about nationalism and identity for China but at the same time brought the confrontation between the two nationalisms. By the confrontation, the Thai government started to take some political actions to limit the development of Thai-Chinese. Thai government hoped that Thai-Chinese kept going to assimilate in Thai society and went being loyal to the kingdom. On the other side, the Thai-Chinese who had been enjoying the free living and business environment without any restrictions in Thailand now felt the pressure from Thai government. They tried to reacted to the new political rules and also asked for support from Chinese government. After the coup in 1932, the power of Thai nationalism went to the top position and the new government tried very hard to seek for the good relationship with Japan. Thus, the new government again started to take actions but this time harder than before to restrict the development of Thai-Chinese. The yearly amount of immigrants were sharply deducted , the Chinese schools were also ruled by the strict laws, some were even closed. Since 1911, the Chinese government positively sought every possible way in connecting with overseas Chinese, take education as the way in promoting the nationalism and the nation-identity among these people close to China. These actions made the image of Chinese schools in political more than educational function. Also, the series new laws for the government of Thailand made all problems about Thai-Chinese not just the inner racial problem, but also the problem of international relationships with some countries. The background of Thailand’s Chinese policies and actions were complicated as they stayed between three main topics: the development of Thai nationalism, the international relationship condition and the role and function of Chinese education in Thailand. The anti-Chinese policy and the resistance from Thai-Chinese connected closely to the Chinese democratic revolution, also ended by the time Chinese civil war finished. After 1949, The Thai-Chinese had already made the choice in high level to be part of Thai society by the practical reasons. At the same time, after the fading away of political function for Chinese schools, the development of Thai-Chinese education was almost ended. Comparing to other Chinese in south-east Asia, the reason why Thai-Chinese didn’t construct such education system like Malaysian Chinese is special and curious. Also, the anti-Chinese policy made Thai-Chinese accidently involved highly in Thai society showed also very different reflection from other south-eastern Asian countries which also took the same policy to Chinese there. The study purpose of the thesis is focus on more understanding about the characteristics of Thai-Chinese society. The analyzing for roles and functions which Chinese education acted in different periods of Thai history is also one of the main purpose for this thesis.
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