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A Design-Based Study to Investigate the Effects of a 3D Virtual Environment on Children with Disabilities’ Chinese Verbal Ability in Vocabulary and Sentence Formation
3D virtual environment
comorbidity with language delay
Chinese verbal ability
|Abstract:||本研究主要是運用設計式研究法，特教教師與語言教學專家及電腦工程師以跨領域的團隊合作模式在Second Life平台上建置出3D虛擬遊戲情境，並在此虛情情境中設計語言學習活動，透過多重資料收集，交叉驗證及不斷的反覆循環修正的方式，發展出適合身心障礙學生使用且具成效的多感官語言學習情境，以改善有語言發展遲緩共病的身心障礙學生之語彙和語句能力。本研究採取二階段性的教學實驗設計，受試者是四位身心障礙學生，這些學生除本身有注意力不足過動症、輕度自閉症或輕度智能障礙外，也合併有語言發展遲緩的共病。實驗前準備階段受試者先接受標準化語言能力測驗及研究者自編詞彙和語句成就測驗，以了解學生語言問題，確認欲改善的語言標的，並建立實驗基準線。接著研究者運用3D虛擬情境先進行第一階段每週二次，為期三周，每週一個場景，共三個場景的語彙和語句教學活動。每次教學實驗中，觀察學生在Second Life 3D虛擬情境的學習反應及身心障礙學生在3D虛擬場景中會遭遇到的問題，然後進行反思，並定期與語言教學專家及工程師團隊進行會議討論，然後修正所建置的場景與活動，如此不斷循環修改，逐步建立場景設計準則。之後依此準則建置另外五個更適合身心障礙學生的3D虛擬語言場景，並進行第二階段為期五周五個場景的教學實驗。五個場景進行時，除仍依學生反應進行場景活動修正微調外，並邀請其他特教教師和語言治療師體驗，針對場景與相關活動設計給予意見。本實驗所有階段的場景設計都以學生生活周遭有關的場景為主，如家中廚房、超市、學校健康中心和遊戲場、交通設施…等，讓其學習能與生活聯結，促進學習類化，以利於學生能將虛擬場景所學的語彙和語句運用於生活中。每個場景的學習活動遊戲化，學生被賦予任務，要闖關完成四個關卡。每單元活動分為初階詞彙活動(場景物件命名)、進階詞彙活動(場景物件歸類、定義和推理能力訓練)、語句活動(依該單元句型進行語句的聽理解反應與口說表達活動)和評量活動(綜合評量或延伸活動)四部分。學生在第二階段五個單元的學習活動完成後及一個月後以相同的標準化語言能力測驗及自編詞彙和語句成就測驗進行後測及延宕後測，以比較實驗前後的語言能力進展，探究這些有語言發展遲緩共病的身心障礙兒童在使用Second Life 3D虛擬情境進行學習後，其口語語彙和語句能力是否能有效提升。此外並收集家長意見及對學生進行訪談。研究結果發現，這三種類型障礙的學生，在語彙能力和語句能力上都有顯著的進步，且在說故事的語句長度、語句結構複雜度、語句量也有明顯的提升。家長問卷結果也顯示家長發現學生的語言能力有所進步，與實驗結果相符。除此之外，從教學過程錄影帶分析、學生訪談錄影內容，也顯示學生對於此二階段共八個場景的虛擬情境活動有高度的興趣，這樣的實驗設計能有效提升學習動機、專注力長度和行為自控能力。|
This study applied a design-based research method, with the cooperation of an interdisciplinary team of computer programmers, scholars of language teaching, and special education teachers, to identify the practical problems of special education students, and then developed virtual environments in Second Life. These virtual environments were programmed with language learning activities for the special education students to use, by way of iterative cycles of testing, evaluating, and refining from various aspects of multiple data, in order to create an effective, barrier-less, multi-sensory virtual environment to enhance their Chinese vocabulary and sentence learning. This experiment has a two-stage experiments design, and was conducted on 4 students with disabilities who were diagnosed with mild autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mild mental retardation (MR), or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). All students were comorbid with language delay. After standardized and teacher-made language assessments were administrated at the preparation stage as pre-tests to establish a baseline for this study, the first stage of the experiment was followed by three weeks of vocabulary and sentence formation learning activities in three different virtual settings in Second Life, from which the research team observed students’ reactions and discussed the problems students were confronted with in the 3D virtual world. Afterwards, the research team developed principles for modifying the designs of the 3D virtual settings. Then, a five-week period commenced as the second stage, in which five virtual settings with learning activities tailored to the research team’s findings were administrated. All the virtual settings were designed to resemble places closely related to the daily life of students, such as a kitchen at home, a school health center and play ground, a supermarket, transportation facilities, and so forth. In every unit, participants were asked to complete 4 missions which included a basic vocabulary activity (labeling), advanced vocabulary activities (categorizing, defining, and reasoning the objects), sentence structure practice, and a formative assessment (which functioned as a review of the content or as enrichment activities). After the experiment, participants received the same language assessments both at that time and a month later as a post-test and a delayed post-test. The result showed that all three types of disabled students not only had significant progress in their Chinese verbal abilities in vocabulary and sentence formation, but also in their storytelling competence according to the length, quality, and quantity of sentences. In addition, students showed better motivation, longer persistent attention, and improved self-control in the virtual world.
|Appears in Collections:||學位論文|
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