Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85249
Title: 臺灣兒童電視廣告規範研究
The Research of Advertising Regulation for Children Television in Taiwan
Authors: 王維菁
Wei-ching, Wang
許碧純
Pi-Chun, Hsu
Keywords: 兒童廣告
廣告規範
廣告法規
媒體自律
社會他律
Children advertising
Advertising regulation
Advertising legislation
Self-regulation
Supervision from civil society
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 電視乃是兒童最常接觸以及使用時間最長的大眾媒體之一,隨著兒童的長時間收視,電視廣告亦成為兒童最常接觸的電視文本之一,根據兒童福利聯盟基金會2010年食物廣告調查報告指出,臺灣兒童平均一年看到的電視廣告就高達33,696則,電視廣告對兒童的影響不可小覷。 兒童期是人類認知發展的重要階段,電視廣告不只會形塑兒童消費認知以及生活習慣,同時亦有可能影響親子關係並帶來兒童肥胖的問題,因此目前包括歐洲各國、美國、澳洲、南韓在內的許多國家皆針對兒童電視廣告訂定規範管理,反觀臺灣社會雖然近年開始關心兒童與媒體議題,國家通訊傳播委員會並於2011年提出兒少通傳權益政策白皮書,其中提及不排除對兒童廣告進行管制,但是整體來說,我國目前對於兒童廣告的管制規範尚未完備,仍有修正之空間。 因此,本研究旨在探討我國兒童電視廣告規範有何尚須修正增補之處,並以歐美國家的經驗做為參考借鏡,以對我國未來政策發展的可行方向做出建言。研究內容主要分為以下三個部分: 首先,第二章定義兒童與兒童電視廣告的概念,並探討兒童認知發展過程與電視廣告會為兒童帶來的影響。再來,第三章主要聚焦於臺灣的兒童電視廣告產業發展與現狀,以及國內與歐美國家社會、政治、經濟背景之異同,以檢視歐美國家規範經驗於臺灣的適用性。最後,第四章則分析臺灣及歐美國家兒童電視廣告法律、自律以及社會他律三個層次的規範,探討我國未來兒童電視廣告規範可行之走向。 主要研究發現: 一、臺灣電視廣告規範偏重法律規範,業者自律及社會他律的力量不足,因此未來應採取期許以自律為優先,輔以社會他律,並以法律規定作為最後一道防線的三律共管模式。 二、自律部分目前以各業者內部自律為主,缺乏完整之外部自律體系,因此未來在外部自律體系部分,應加強準則內容、建立個案投訴管理之平台,並且結合頻道執照換發制度,以強化自律機制之強制力。 三、目前法律條文係以一般廣告為規範對象,應再特別針對兒童廣告進行規定,並且建議設立兒童通訊傳播專法,而針對兒童電視廣告之規定,則應再進行補強,包含業者製播廣告時必須將兒童特質納入考量,以及消費價值觀、歧視等社會價值維護之部分,並以案例輔助法律條文的具體化。此外,應針對藥品及食品廣告與線上遊戲等商品類型做進一步之規範。最後為減少廣告收入對兒童節目質量的影響,建議政府定期評選、獎勵優質兒童節目之製作。 四、社會他律部分,目前社會團體數量繁多但力量分散,建議應整合分工,民眾以及業者的媒體素養亦皆須加強,而國家通訊傳播委員會現有之他律組織「廣播電視節目廣告諮詢會議」則必須維持參與成員的多樣性,納入業者的意見,以補足兒童電視廣告相關產業資料以及了解業者自律之狀況,並促進業者與主管機關之間之溝通及共識。
Television, one of mass media, occupies most of children’s time. Thus, children are easily and frequently exposed to TV advertising. According to the survey, food advertising on TV in 2010, which was proceeded by The Child Welfare League Foundation, indicated that children in Taiwan averagely have watched over 33,696 advertising per year. Therefore, the impact of television advertising on children cannot be overlooked. Early childhood plays an important role for children to develop their cognition. Television advertising not only shapes children’s life style and the habit of consumption but influences parent-child interaction. Furthermore, TV commercials, especially on the food products, also cause children’s obesity problem. So far, many countries, including countries in Europe, USA, Australia, and South Korea, have regulated television adverting for children. In Taiwan, the concern of the impact of media on children has increased in recent years. National Communications Commission has already announced the White Paper on the Rights and Interests of Communication Policy for Children and Teenager in which children advertising regulations have been included. However, regulations on children advertising in Taiwan leave much to be desired. Thus, this thesis focuses on the modification and supplementary on current regulations, taking American and European countries as reference, to give suggestions to policy in the future. There are three parts in this research. First, in chapter two, the definition of children and children advertising have been given. Children’s cognition development process and the impact of adverting on children are also presented in this chapter. In chapter three, we not only focus on the development and current situation in children advertising industry, but the differences of social, politic, and economic situation between USA, countries in Europe, and Taiwan. Finally, we analyze the regulation in USA, countries in Europe, and Taiwan, including legislation, self-regulation, and supervision from civil society, to find out how to reform the children’s adverting regulation in our country. The findings of this research: 1.Current TV advertising regulations mainly depend on legislation, lacking of the self-regulation from the industry and supervision from civil society. Thus, this research suggests that the future children advertising regulation system should integrate self-regulation, legislation, and the supervision from civil society. Based on legislation, self-regulation should be set as priority. 2.So far, the problem of self-regulation system is that there are no external self-regulation mechanisms for children advertising in Taiwan. Thus, Building an external self-regulation mechanisms is of top importance, and which should include guideline, channels for audience to give their suggestions or complains, and judgmental system with effective punishment program. Above all, we can use the media performance as the standard for license renewal to strengthen the enforcement in self-regulation system. 3.Current law aims at general advertising. However, the advertising for children should be further regulated and the children communication act should be made. The legislation should take children’s character, value of consumption, and discrimination into consideration. Besides, ads for drugs, health foods, or online game should also be regulated. Finally, to avoid the interaction between commercial earnings and children’s programs quality, we suggest good children programs be rewarded regularly by the government. 4.As for the supervision from civil society, social welfare groups play a vital role on child’s rights and interests. But the powers are scattered. In that, social welfare groups should target on integration and proper division of labor. On the other hand, the audience and media employees also need to equip themselves with media literacy. Besides, the composition of the Television Programs and Advertisings Advisory Committee of National Communications Commission requires more diversity. The government should listen to opinions from children ads industries to understand the trend of commercial industries, and to know how self-regulation can be conducted. What is more, this action also encourages the communication between government and industries.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0698370110%22.&%22.id.&
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Other Identifiers: GN0698370110
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