北管音樂中古箏的存見情形概覽

Date
2018-05-??
Authors
林雅琇
Ya-Hsiu LIN
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國立臺灣師範大學音樂學院
College of Music, NTNU
Abstract
北管音樂的樂種現狀包含牌子、戲曲、絃譜與細曲四種音樂類型;絃譜與細曲等以絲竹樂隊演(伴)奏、較為文雅安靜的音樂類型,常以細樂泛稱之,而具有喧鬧形象的牌子與戲曲,則俗稱為粗樂。在北管音樂的研究文獻中,屢次見及古箏存在於少數北管館閣之中的紀錄,但罕有進一步論述。本文通過文獻的梳理與多重史料的交互考證,以時間線索做為論述依據,將歷史上北管用箏的存見情形與應用場合進行分析論述,進而得出階段性結論。通過研究發現,歷史上北管用箏的館閣間存有不同程度的共性,這些館閣多有擔任祭孔樂生或出崑腔陣的歷史背景,而在館閣的場域之中,古箏則用於排場演奏細樂之時。整體而言,古箏在臺灣北管音樂中的使用雖相對較少,但也足以證明古箏除了在現代國樂一脈的發展以外,也同步在臺灣其他民間音樂脈絡中潛伏發展,展現古箏的豐富多元面貌。
Beiguan music has four different sub-categories, including Paizi (牌子), Hien-pho (絃譜), Operatic music (戲曲) and Yiu-kgie (細曲). Among them, Hien-pho and Yiu-kgie, which use sizhu (絲竹) ensemble, are also called “Xi-yue” (exquisite music, 細樂) because the music sounds more elegant and tranquil than Paizi and Operatic music, which are also known as “Cu-yue” (coarse music, 粗樂). There are records in some Beiguan music clubs which show that the use of zheng is not uncommon but the subject is rarely discussed. In this study, the author investigates the use of zheng in Beiguan music history through literature review and related historic documents chronologically. With an analysis on the occasions where zheng was used in Beiguan ensembles, the author has the following tentative conclusions. There are different degrees of commonality in the use of zheng in the archives found in different Beiguan music clubs. Most of these communities have experiences performing in the memorial ceremony honoring Confucius and the Kunqiang Troop (崑腔陣). On the other hand, within the community of Beiguan clubs, zheng is mostly applied in the Xi-yue ensemble. Generally speaking, the use of zheng is relatively rare in Beiguan ensembles in Taiwan, but the fact it is used on certain occasions proves that in additional to the modern classical Chinese music, zheng also plays a role in the traditional music in Taiwan. These findings show the diversity in the application of zheng within the music culture.
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