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Title: 德國師徒制之現代化轉型及其社會建構
Other Titles: The Modern Transformation and Social Construction of the German Apprenticeship
Authors: 張源泉
Yuan-Chuan Chang
Issue Date: Jun-2019
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學教育學系
Department of Education,National Taiwan Normal University
Abstract: 制度化師徒制源自中世紀時期的歐洲,其在十三、十四世紀已躍居為歐洲產業發展的重要型態,但工業革命及其後之技術革新,對師徒制幾乎造成「殲滅性」衝擊,大多數歐洲國家的師徒制逐漸萎縮最終消亡,而德國師徒制則由原本僅侷限於手工業擴散至工業化產業,並轉型為舉世聞名的雙元制職業教育。本文首先探究德國師徒制的歷史發展、社會建構,最後再進一步省思借鏡師徒制所隱含之挑戰。在傳統師徒制逐漸衰落的過程,相對於大多數歐洲國家採取「任意主義」的做法,德國則在「社會市場經濟」模式下採取國家干預,且在利益相關者之博弈競合,將師徒制回歸為行會集體主義管制,成功地抵禦了自由市場之衝擊。再者,德國學徒制之形成與發展,奠基於該國歷史文化與政經脈絡等,若未詳盡探究學徒制發展的源頭動力、建構配套措施,即貿然予以借鑑,即易陷入借鏡之困境。
Germany’s apprenticeship system originated in the Middle Ages, and became a major factor in the early industrial development of Europe during the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the industrial revolution and the technological advances which followed in its wake practically wiped out the craft-oriented apprenticeship system in most parts of Europe. In Germany, nonetheless, the apprenticeship system was transformed into its world-renowned dual system of vocational education. In this paper I trace the historical and social development of the German apprenticeship system, and also examine some of the challenges to be faced when one attempts to adopt it in another context. This study shows that while the traditional apprenticeship system was in a state of gradual decline, in contrast to the ethos of voluntarism on the rise in most parts of Europe, Germany adopted a social market economy characterized by centralized government control. At the same time, amidst the cooperation and competition of various stakeholders, the German apprenticeship system returned to the collectivism of the guild system, and thus managed to fend off the challenges posed by the growing free market. This study also shows that the apprenticeship system in Germany developed in accordance with its particular historical situation in terms of culture, government, and economics. It is argued that any attempt to adopt the German apprenticeship system elsewhere without taking this into account is unlikely to bring good results.
Other Identifiers: 8917B44A-ABE1-71DE-8715-DE9DE92EF3B9
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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