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Title: 市場導向及其對高等教育之影響
Other Titles: Marketization, Marketing and Higher Education
Authors: 戴曉霞
Issue Date: Jan-1999
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 為了減輕財政的負擔及確保公共資源的有效利用,世界各國都逐漸調整以往由政府主導高等教育的方式,解除對公私立大學的各項管制,賦予高等教育機構更大的自主空間。同時,也將市場機制引入高等教育,讓競爭引導高等教育機構積極回應市場的需求,以增強彈性、提升效率。市場導向被視為主導新世紀高等教育發展最主要的力量之一。所謂的市場導向應該包含兩個層次:第一個層次是經濟學所說的市場化(marketization)或自由化,也就是將高等教育導向趨近於完全競爭市場的歷程,所採取的手段包括解除管制、消除壟斷、私有化等。這個層次的市場導向通常由政府主導,屬於鉅觀層面。第二個層次是行銷學(marketing)所說的市場,也就是以消費者為組織之生產與銷售的中心,藉由市場區隔、產品定位、定價、產品通路等技巧,提供滿足消費者需要的產品,同時完成組織目標。這個層次的市場導向基本上是個別機構策略規劃的一部分,屬於微觀層面。有鑑於市場導向對未來高等教育發展的重要性,本文擬先對市場導向的這兩個層次作進一步探究,其次再分析市場化及行銷理念對高等教育的發展及經營所帶來的影響,最後探討在市場導向的浪潮中,高等教育所面對的挑戰與展望。
The heavy financial burden caused by the expansion of higher education forced many governments to change their higher education policy in order to make higher education institutions more self-regulatory and more responsive to the needs of society. In addition to the devolution of power, governments are increasingly turning to market forces as a means of coordinating universities. This paper argues that as far as higher education is concerned, market orientation covers two layers of concepts:The first is the marketization of higher education, directed by governments and implemented via deregulation and privatization:the second is the marketing strategies adopted by individual institutions, with an aim to define institutional comparative advantages and to better serve the needs and wants of their target consumers. Both marketization and marketing will no doubt have far-reaching impact on the development and management of higher education.
Other Identifiers: 452DF872-2A7B-EC04-C10C-6628081D441D
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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