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Title: 德國教育系統中階級不平等現象之研究
Other Titles: A Study on Class Inequality In German Educational System
Authors: 余曉雯
Issue Date: Sep-2008
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 2001年,經濟合作暨發展組織(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD)發布了第一屆「國際學生評量計畫」(Program for International Student Assessment, PISA)之結果。這個針對32個國家中15歲的青少年所進行的有關閱讀、數學以及自然科學的成就測驗,為德國社會投下了一顆爆破力驚人的炸彈。令德國社會大眾震驚的,不只是因為其青少年在三個領域中的排名都遠遠低於OECD成員國的平均,更令其難堪的是,德國學生的成績與其社經背景間的正相關,高居32國之首。也就是說,在德國,來自愈高社會階層的孩子,在測驗中所獲得的分數也就愈高。面對PISA的結果,德國社會除了在政策面向上有各種教育舉措的研商與討論之外,教育界對於教育與社會平等間之關係的討論,也因為PISA而重燃火苗。翻開德國教育史,這個議題其實不算新,1960年代,「鄉村天主教工人少女」標舉出教育中弱勢者的圖像即可看出一二。自PISA測驗公布後,新的教育弱勢族群之代稱改為「來自問題社區的土耳其工人移民子弟」。時序輪轉半世紀,弱勢族群之區域有異,種族、性別也不同,但不變的是其階級印記:工人。因此,本研究之主題將聚焦於德國教育系統中的階級不平等現象。為能較全面地了解此議題,本研究一方面透過實際數據之呈現,指出教育系統中的階級不平等狀況;另外,亦將從歷史文件分析中,探討有關當局所採行之相關改革措施;最後,則試圖將德國教育系統特徵與相關社會學之解釋加以結合,除了提出可能的解釋模式外,並期望藉此能深化對此議題之思考。
In 2001 the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) released the results of the first “Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), ” which is a comparative research about the reading, mathematics, and natural science performance of 15 year old students in 32 countries. The result was like a bomb for Germany, not only because the rank of German, was below the average among the OECD, but also because the positive correlation between the performance of the students and the socioeconomic status of their families was the strongest among OECD countries. This means that the higher the social status of the students' families is, the higher their grades will be. When we survey the German educational history, it is apparent that the issue is not a new one. Darendorf used the “young girls from the working class in the country” as the representative image of inequity in the 1960' s. In the latest results of PISA, the new symbol of inequity is “the Turkish boys from the working class in a troubled community.” After forty years, even the region, religion, race, and the gender of the educationally discriminated groups have changed, the unchanged aspect is the class stamp- the worker. Thus this study will focus on the unfair distribution of educational opportunities among different classes. In order to analyze this issue, we presented the unequal situations of different classes by means of statistical data. In addition, we also explored the relevant reforms undertook by the authority. Finally, we brought up an explaining model combining the characteristics of the German educational system and the relevant sociological explanation, in the hope of deepening the discussions about this topic.
Other Identifiers: 215D64E5-9122-5E06-639A-4A5D7049489A
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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