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Title: 宋代科舉報考人數與錄取人數失衡間題因應對策之分析
Other Titles: On the Numerical Imbalance between Participants and the Successful Test-takers of the Sung China Civil Service Examination and the Strategies for Fixing the Imbalance Strategies
Authors: 周愚文
Yu- Wen Chou
Issue Date: Sep-2012
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 本文係探討末代當科舉考生數日增,但錄取人數無法大幅提昇'出現「少取點落多,多取i監冗多」兩難,所採因應對策。經分析宋解額、報考與錄取數變化,可知宋解額是由比例制改為定額制。新制當報考數增,必造成落榜數及比例大增。因官學生續增致潛在考生日增,雖增解額但幅度有限,以致錄取率下降,失衡問題延至省試,道採固定及管控名額,以致通過之舉人比例大降,讓解試成為主要瓶頸。對此宋採取明訂解試解額、小幅增加解、省試額、拉長開考週期、增加殿試、及提供解、省試落第者疏散管道等策略。但其只治標且有副作用。因迫於形勢,只能既容忍大量考生報考以籠絡之,又借延長開考週期,增加考試層級等逐批淘汰差者,以舒緩落榜者的失望與不滿。失衡問題延續到明清,其所採因應策略仍與宋相近。
When the participants of the civil service examination gradually increased along with the population in the Sung Dynasty, and the numbers of those who passed were thus intentionally increased by the Sung emperors, the numerical imbalance between the participants and those who passed intensified. If the government allowed more participants to pass, then the officials would be in surplus; if it allowed fewer to pass,then too many would fai l. The ways in which the Sung government coped with this dilemma are the focus of this paper.The Sung tried to fix and regulate the number of successful test-takers in the prefecture and metropolitan examinations, but these regulations did not work. So,while the Sung government still accepted participants, they adopted certain strategies,such as limiting the placement of successful test-takers, extending the period between examinations, increasing the palace examination, and providing alternative channels of work for those who failed. However, there was no one permanent solution; the validity of any solution was temporary. The examination system continued, and the imbalance continued to exist along with it. Strategies similar to those taken by the Sung were later adopted by the Ming and Ch'ing.
Other Identifiers: 15C12E70-75CD-C49B-A813-3F404D508484
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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