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|Other Titles:||The Influence of Order of Mention and Type of Character Expression on Mandarin Chinese Readers’ Pronoun Resolution|
Mei-Yao Wu, Yuh-Tsuen Tzeng
Department of Educational Psychology, NTNU
|Abstract:||在有多位角色的文本中，作者常以不同的呈現形式介紹角色，如：人名、代名詞或角色描述名，且角色呈現的順序也不同。當文本中以代名詞指稱前文提及的角色時，讀者需要推論代名詞指稱何者。唯有正確的代名詞推論，才能促成文章的連貫，因此，角色提及順位與呈現形式等因素都會影響讀者代名詞推論歷程。本研究旨在探討此兩因素對中文讀者在代名詞推論的影響，以代名詞推論句的反應時間為依變項探究其推論歷程。本實驗以24 位成人與26 位六年級學童為研究對象，實驗設計為三因子混合設計：年級提及順位呈現形式，採用自我控制閱讀速度作業，紀錄逐句的閱讀時間。結果顯示三因子交互作用未達顯著，進一步分別探討提及順位（第一順位／第二順位）與呈現形式（人名／角色描述名）二因子對兩群年齡層讀者在代名詞推論之影響。結果發現，成人讀者在代名詞推論時，不受提及順位與呈現形式兩因素的影響；六年級學童在代名詞指涉第一順位角色時，閱讀時間不受角色呈現形式的影響，但在代名詞指涉對象為第二順位角色時，以人名呈現角色的方式會有助於代名詞推論。最後，從讀者在角色提及順位（第一順位／第二順位）與呈現形式（人名／角色描述名）所形成的四種情況之閱讀時間來看，六年級學童在代名詞推論的閱讀模式和成人的閱讀模式相近，此結果對於學童代名詞推論的閱讀發展歷程有更進一步的瞭解。|
Narrative texts often contain several characters, and these characters have different levels of importance in the text. Forexample, some characters play primary protagonists, whereas others play supporting or minor roles. These characters areintroduced in different orders and presented through different types of character expressions, such as proper nouns, pronouns,or role descriptions. When an author uses pronouns to refer to the characters mentioned in earlier sentences, readers mustfigure out which characters the pronouns are referring to. Therefore, pronouns can be integrated in earlier sentences. As aresult, in later sentences, referential processing becomes essential for building discourse coherence. The order of mention andthe types of character expression affect readers’ pronoun resolution; and developmental data in the literature have shown thatthe ages of readers affect their pronoun resolution, too. The present study focused on how three factors affected pronounresolution, namely the order of mention, the type of character expression, and the reader’s age. We recruited 24 collegestudents and 26 sixth grade students as the study participants. A three-way mixed design (age × order of mention × type ofcharacter expression) was adopted to examine the interaction patterns of these factors. The participants were asked to readtexts sentence-by-sentence at their normal speed, and the reading time was then recorded. The results showed that nothree-way interaction occurred. Two-way interactions were further examined in participants from separate age groups. Theadult participants were unaffected by the order of mention and type of character expression. The sixth grade students wereunaffected by the type of character expression when a pronoun referred to the first-mentioned character; however, in terms ofthe second-mentioned character, the proper name expression of the characters enhanced pronoun resolution in readers. Thisimplies that the name of the character is more important than the role description for readers. Moreover, the reading timepatterns were observed to be similar across these four two-way conditions for both age groups. Finally, some applications ofpronoun resolution instruction and practical examplaes are serve as suggestions for teachers.
|Appears in Collections:||教育心理學報|
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