Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/80706
Title: 曼陀羅對二十世紀抽象繪畫之影響
Other Titles: Mandala Influence on Twentieth Century Abstract Paintings
Authors: Sagar Subhash Talekar
Issue Date: Oct-2010
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學美術學系暨美術研究所
Department & Graduate Institute of Fine Arts, NTNU
Abstract: 「抽象」不論就意義或實體而言皆與「沉思、冥想」同義。現代主義中抽象最重要的源頭之一是古代東方藝術。波洛克(Jackson Pollock)、梵谷(Van Gogh)等偉大的藝術家均受古代藝術影響。古代東方藝術有數個源頭,涵括最古老的東方哲學:曼陀羅哲學。傳統的曼陀羅象徵(形式上具有圓、螺旋、正方形、長方形、三角形等)及其哲學,源於印度盛傳於東亜,然而其中最關鍵的即是密續冥想在印度的流傳。曼陀羅在藝術上的影響,自古代到文藝復興時期是屬於較傳統而儀式性的,而非抽象性的表現。自文藝復興時期起,曼陀羅對現代繪畫的影響開始展現並開展至印象主義、後期印象主義、表現主義到野獸派。二十世紀的許多西方哲學家如馮大拿(David Fontana)、特別是榮格(Carl Jung)等人,透過曼陀羅而有冥想體驗及潛意識自我的再現。也因此,使得康丁斯基(Kandinsky)、保羅‧克利(Paul Klee)等西方畫家對此好奇並獲致啟發。從現代抽象藝術的脈絡看來,自立體派以來,透過塞尚(Paul Cézanne)、畢卡索(Picasso)、布拉克(George Braque)、康丁斯基、保羅‧克利等人的努力,曼陀羅的種子逐漸長成為枝葉繁密的植物。藝術家從多元觀點來描繪此一主題,更豐富了曼陀羅的文本內涵。通常立體派藝術家讓表現形式貫穿隨機交錯的視角,消解感官上的深度。不過,藝術表現仍是具象再現。至絕對主義,曼陀羅茁壯為抽象藝術的大樹。它的開創者-馬列維奇(Kasimir Malevich)則深受俄羅斯哲學家及神秘主義數學家喬治‧戈傑福(Georges Gurdjieff)的影響。絕對主義建構在純粹抽象和絕對幾何之上,像是圓形、螺旋形、正方形、長方形、三角形及豐富鮮明的色彩上。這些幾何的形式皆可與曼陀羅的純粹幾何形式做連結或比較。此外,至二十世紀中期,東方藝術家:如台灣的蕭勤、印度的若札(S. H. Raza)對曼陀羅藝術作出深具意義的貢獻。雖然二者接受西方藝術技法的訓練,所本的卻是東方的禪與密續,此皆明顯源自曼陀羅。就此可推論,許多二十世紀的抽象畫家,均直接或間接地受到曼陀羅象徵與哲學的啟發,而使其藝術極具獨特性。這些藝術家本身不僅具冥想氣質,其繪畫亦反映自身的冥想生活及深邃的價值觀。作品中可以捕捉到許多相似性的元素,而這些皆源自曼陀羅這個具神性的圓點。然而此前,未有任何相關研究特意對此提出探討。本文詳細地檢視曼陀羅對二十世紀抽象繪畫的影響。試圖從藝術作品中,以東西方哲學觀點、繪畫方法及幾何形式的影響,提供獨特的分析,營造新思維的氛圍,提供深切理解其創作的洞察。
If we emphasize ‗Abstraction‘ we‘d find that the word is nothing less than the word ‗Meditation‘ in terms of meaning and substance. One of the great sources of abstract modernism is ancient oriental art. Many great painters, for example, Jackson Pollock and Van Gogh, were influenced by oriental art. Ancient oriental art has several roots. Among them are the most ancient Eastern philosophies in the world, the Mandala philosophies. Traditional Mandala symbolisms (forms such as circle, spiral, square, rectangle and triangle) and philosophies belong to India and mostly spread in East Asian countries, while the key part of Tantra meditation practice remained confined within India. Mandala influence on art since ancient times to Renaissance was more orthodox and ritualistic rather than abstract in terms of expression. The seeds of Mandala in modern paintings, however, can be traced back from the Renaissance to Impressionism to Post Impressionism and to Expressionism and Fauvism. Many western philosophers of twentieth century such as David Fontana and especially Carl Jung had ‗meditative experiences‘ and ‗a representation of the unconscious self‘ through Mandala and therefore western painters such as Kandinsky and Paul Klee got curious and inspired from Mandala philosophy. In the context of modern Abstract art it is apparent that the seeds of Mandala grove up as a plant from Cubism with painters such as Paul Cézanne, Picasso, George Braque, Kandinsky, Paul Klee in the forefront. In Suprematism the plant of Mandala became a really huge abstract tree. Kasimir Malevich, the originator of Suprematism was highly influenced by Russian philosopher and mystic-mathematician Georges Gurdjieff. Moreover, in mid twentieth century, the Eastern painters such as Hsiao Chin from Taiwan and S. H. Raza from India made a significant contribution to the field of Manadala symbolism. This article, therefore, presents the details of the examination carried out on ―Mandala Influence on Twentieth
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/80706
Other Identifiers: 1A6A86CA-CF86-9726-9EFD-0B74732BD220
Appears in Collections:藝術論壇

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