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Application of 1979~2009 Digital Orthophotos and Digital Terrain Models to Investigate Surface Changes in Tsaoling Landslide Area�
Five gigantic landslides have been recorded in the Tsaoling area since 1862 and the latest landslide was triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. After the earthquake, the changes of the land surface were fast and the rapid surface changes benefit the study of landslide mechanisms, tectonic activities and landform evolution. By using high-resolution aerial orthophotos, ten (10) high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM) from 1979 to 2009 were generated and calibrated. The surface changes in the landslide scar, deposit areas, the river channel were presented. These changes were inspected by three ten-year long-term comparisons (1979-1989, 1989-9999, 1999-2009) and followed by short-term evaluations after Chi-Chi earthquake (1999-2009). The earthquake triggered landslide was a dip-slope failure. The evolution of the river bed profile indicated that incision took place in the upstream section of the Chinshui river and deposition took place in the downstream section. This led to that the river slope became milder in the ten years after the earthquake. In the landslide scar area, the volume of slid mass varied with the extreme climate events, such as typhoons and rainfall in the correspondent period. From landscape observations in aerial photos, the Taochiashan deposit and Chunqiu cliff demonstrated rapid recession from the river. We selected four observation sections at the sites with fastest recession and calculated their recession rates. Between 2003 and 2009, the average recession rate of the Taochiashan slope was 46.1m/year and that of the Chunqiu cliff was 33.8 m/year. The recession mechanisms were the toe erosion and the peeling failure of the cliff front, respectively.
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