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Title: 永續都市的代謝分析、評估與管理-都市食物系統與空間變遷分析
Assessing and Mapping the Urban Food System Based on Material Flow Analysis and Ecosystem Services Assessment (2)
Other Titles: 物質流與生態系統服務功能評估之整合應用 (II)
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學地理學系
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 都市為人口稠密聚集之地理空間,今日許多環境問題根源於都市能資源過度耗用與 不永續之生活型態。因此,永續都市之代謝、分析與管理研究著實重要,而都市食物資 源之供應、消費與代謝更是其中重要之一環。 本研究以物質流理論、生態系統服務功能理論(Ecosystem Services)與生境理論 (Biotope Theory)為基礎,探討都市地理空間食物資源之供應、消費與代謝。本研究以 物質流分析方法,探討都市空間在不同時間點食物供給、與養分循環之質與量變化,並 將進一步結合空間分析技術與方法,瞭解不同時間點各類生態服務功能空間之變遷。而 在衝擊評估之詮釋分析上將以都市空間食物消費之生態足跡、碳足跡、氮足跡、水足跡 等進行綜合研析,以補正過去相關研究側重單一項目所可能所成之偏誤。 研究選取大台北地區作為研究個案,選取分析 1947-2012之數據(自 1947年起才 有適用之統計數據),探討這 66年間不同時間點大台北地區食物物質流之質(如:氮與 磷元素流)與量變化。而在空間分析,目前已選定大台北地區食物生產空間變遷之關鍵 時間點,結合可取得之影像圖資,分別為:1905年(台灣堡圖)、1945年(美軍空拍照 片)、1972年(landsat-1 衛星影像圖)、2008年(國土測繪中心國土利用調查作業成 果圖資)、2012年(福衛 2 號衛星影像);將進行大台北地區生態服務功能空間之變 遷分析,特別是不同時間點供應大台北地區食物提供地區之(SPAs)之變化。 計畫第二年將探討都市生活型態與飲食行為對都市食物物質流之影響,評估不同年 度大台北地區居民各類食物消費量之變遷,以及這些食物消費行為所產生之環境負荷 (碳足跡、氮足跡、水足跡、生態足跡等);同時將探討大台北地區發展後期因為這樣 巨量食物需求而對台灣其他農業生產縣市(例如:雲林縣)環境所造成之影響與衝擊, 以瞭解都市擴張對鄉村地區之衝擊。第三年研究則將聚焦於都市食物廢棄物處理以及能 資源循環回收之探討。本研究成果將可提供永續都市在制訂與食物供應、消費與食物廢 棄物處理以及能資源循環回收相關政策時參考。
Urban regions are important places of ecosystem service demands and, at the same time, are the primary sources of global environmental impacts. Although there is broad agreement on the importance of incorporating the concept of ecosystem services into policy strategies and decision-making, the lack of a standardized approach to quantifying ecosystem services at the landscape scale has hindered progress in this direction. Moreover, tradeoffs between ecosystem services and the supply/demand ratio of ecosystem services in urban regions have rarely been investigated. In this project, we present a method to quantify and map the supply and demand of essential provisioning services (food) in urban regions based on Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Ecosystem Services, and Biotope Theory. Urban metabolism studies examine the sources and consumption of resources and the discharge, processing, and recycling of wastes. Because of the insights this approach can provide, it has gradually become an important area of urban studies. Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is one of the most commonly used methods for studying urban metabolism, and concentrates on accounting for the inputs of materials and energy, production of products, and discharge of wastes. However, most of these results have been based on black-box models that emphasize the overall inputs and outputs of the urban metabolic system and evaluation of the overall status of the system. Until recently, there have been few studies of the inner components metabolic characteristics of the black box. Hence, the spatial analysis is added in this study to provide more detailed information about urban metabolism. Taipei metropolitan was selected as case study in this project, and spatial temporal data of food input and consumption, and related food waste treatment in different time period will be analysis. A number of impact assessment methods or tools are applied including food flow accounting, flood flow metabolism ratio analysis and ecological footprint, carbon footprint, nitrogen footprint, and water footprint to indicate the environmental loading resulting from urban food system. In addition, the key stocks and flows of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through food consumption will be explored using a MFA approach to construct a static model of P and N metabolism. The key problems in P and N metabolism and management in the city will be identified. It is important to link P and N flows with environmental regulations and to establish a strong coordination between urban and rural areas for nutrient recycling to attain sustainable development of megacities. Those findings will aid to assess urban sustainability including: (i) consideration of the local, regional and global implications of urban activities; (ii) waste minimization, reuse and recycling; (iii) maximization of use of renewable and recyclable materials; and (iv) more equitable distribution of per capita resources.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0407_04_008
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