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From Gambier to Rubber
|Other Titles:||19 世紀中至20 世紀初柔佛的地景變遷|
The Change of Landscape in Johor from Mid-19th to Early 20th Century�
|Abstract:||本文主要探討19 世紀中至20 世紀初，馬來土邦柔佛（Johor）產業 地景從甘蜜（Uncaria gambir）、胡椒園到橡膠園的轉變過程。 研究分別從全球、區域、地方三種不同尺度來釐清影響地景變遷的 動因。就全球尺度而言，柔佛產業地景的轉變源於殖民主義與資本主義 下的市場需求。區域尺度中，統治者和資本家透過改變全柔佛既有地景 來回應世界市場的需求。在地方上實際參與地景形塑的，則是園坵內的 管理者和底層勞工。 華人及歐洲資本分別於19 及20 世紀主導全柔佛產業地景的塑造， 促使華人港腳（Kangkar）及歐洲大園坵分別成為不同時期的重要地景。|
This article discusses the historical change of landscape in Johor. The Johor landscape was once dominated by gambier and pepper plantations in the mid-19th century. It was gradually replaced by rubber plantations in the early 20th century. This study looks into the change of landscape from three different spatial scales: global, regional, and local. The study suggests that the change of landscape was effectuated by the increase of global market demand for the commodities under colonialism and capitalism. In the region, capitalists and local rulers played leading roles in transforming the landscape to meet the market demand. In addition, the local landscape was further shaped by the administrators and workers who operated the plantations. The Chinese and the European capitalists played important roles in the shaping of Johor’s landscape during the 19th and 20th centuries. The Chinese Kangkar and the European estate were Johor's prominent landscapes in different periods.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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