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Title: 口語中句式的使用與結構
The Use and Structure of Constructions in Spoken Discourse
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學英語學系
Issue Date: 2004
Abstract: 近年來語料庫語言學的研究方法已顯示語言使用的頻率是導致語言結構發生變化的原 因之一. 口語的研究進一步確認, 頻率, 共現, 語音弱化等和言談中使用的詞彙及句式的語 法化有很密切的關係. 這個計畫就是要研究台灣華語會話中高頻詞的共現及語法化的現象. 首先我們以語料庫為本的方式找出在我們口語語料中的高頻詞及常與其共現之份子. 我們選取其中幾個高頻詞作為研究對像, 譬如 「知道」 及其共現組合 「我不知道」, 「你知道 嗎」, 「我也不知道」, 「…知道為什麼…」, 「…怎麼知道…」 等. 這些組合的例子會一一被 檢視, 看有無語音弱化的現象, 弱化到何程度, 頻率如何. 我們也看高頻詞與共現份子 之間是否存在著語法關係, 是何等密切之關係. 語音與語法的分析再兩相對照, 看有否 任何對應關係. 是否語法關係越密切, 語音弱化就越明顯? 若高頻詞正好是多義詞, 是 否語音弱化程度的不同對應了不同的語意? 若高頻詞與數組共現均屬同種語法結構, 是 否語音弱化的程度則無差異? 若有, 是否可由各組使用頻率之不同以及語法化程度之不 同來解釋? 已經步上語法化的組合, 是否高頻詞與共現份子的關係用句式的觀點解釋較 好. 句式是說話雙方常用的言談片段, 預鑄零件, 已是認知及溝通上一個固定的單位. 也就是說, 高頻詞與共現份子的組合併非是在每次言談的當下由語法規則運作而產生出 來的。 這個研究計畫的意義有兩個. 首先, 在描述方面, 這個研究會對台灣華語會話中詞 彙因前後共現頻繁而產生語法語意變化及與其相對應的語音變化作一系統性的分析與 描述. 理論方面, 這個研究也提供台灣華語中的例子, 以支持兩個理論觀點, 即 (1) 詞 彙和語法並非兩個獨立的類別, 它們只是同一現象的兩個極端, (2) 從認知和溝通的角 度來觀察, 語言有很大一部份是依賴 「習慣了的」, 「向來都是這麼說的」 的句式。
Recent corpus-based approaches to language have shown that frequency in language use is one of the mechanisms motivating changes in linguistic structure. Studies in spoken language further identify a strong association between frequency, collocation, phonetic reduction, and the grammaticalization of words and/or constructions in discourse. This project proposes to examine the collocation and grammaticalization of high frequency words as displayed in Taiwan Mandarin conversation. The corpus-based approach will first be taken to identify high frequency words and their favorite collocates in our conversational database. A number of such cases will then be selected for study, e.g., zhi1dao4 『know』 as in wo bu zhidao 『I don』t know』, ni zhidao ma 『do you know?』, … wo ye bu zhidao … 『even I don』t know』, … zhidao weishenme … 『… know why…』, and ... zeme zhidao … 『… how (do I/do you/etc.) know…』. Next, token examples of these collocations are checked to see whether phonetic reduction has taken place, and if yes, how reduced (e.g., vowels reduced to schwa, or consonants dropped) and to what extent (i.e., how frequently the reduction occurs). The structural relationship between the key word and the collocating elements will also be analyzed to see whether they form any grammatical relationship, and if yes, at which level of constituency relation (e.g., all belonging to VP, or rather instantiating SUBJ-V). The phonetic analysis is further matched with the structural analysis to see if there is any correlation. Is it true that the more grammatically related the two elements are, the more reduced/fused their pronunciation is? In the case of polysemy, does the (phonetic) form in collocation with other elements iconically reflect the different encoded meanings? Among collocations instantiating the same grammatical relationship, are there discrepancies in their phonetic reduction behavior? If yes, can the discrepancies be accounted for in terms of skewed frequency of use in discourse and differentiated extent of grammaticalization? For those grammaticalized cases, is the combination of the key word and its collocate(s) better treated as a 「stock」 construction, i.e., a processing unit in cognition and communication, rather than products of rule-application in each instance of daily use? The significance of the project is twofold. Descriptively, this project offers a systematic investigation and documentation of the relationship between phonetic reduction and grammaticalization (structural and semantic changes) motivated by frequent syntagmatic association in language use as illustrated in spoken Taiwan Mandarin. Theoretically, it provides substantive evidence from Taiwan Mandarin in support of the contentions that grammar and lexicon are not distinct categories but form a continuum, and that a large part of people』s cognition and communication relies on routinized language use.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0209_04_009
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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