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Title: 生殺與奪:百年民國赦免的表達與實踐
The Power to Take or Give Life: the Practices and Expressions of Pardon in a Century in R. O. C.
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系
Issue Date: 31-Jul-2012
Abstract: 「大赦天下」的恩赦制度,為傳統中國歷朝掌生殺與奪大權的帝王固有之權限。然而,全盤西化,繼受、移植了西方憲政體制及西方法的中華民國,亦未廢除赦免,與歐美國家一同,採行了現代西方式的赦免制度。西式赦免制度引入戰前中國,乃至於隨著政權運作於戰後臺灣,不知不覺,亦有百年光景。在中西文化交界下,在傳統與現代間,從戒嚴、威權走到民主的不同階段,赦免在規範面以及實踐面上,究竟呈現出何種不同面貌,十分耐人尋味。現代法上論及「赦免」,多半就中華民國憲法第40 條「總統依法行使大赦、特赦、減刑及復權之權」所賦予總統獨享的4 種赦免權限為討論,或以權力分立的角度,分析憲政上允許行政權介入司法審判,允許「法外開恩」的意義所在。抑或進一步分析刑罰與赦免的運用在刑事政策上的爭議,透過中外制度設計,提出優缺批評或立法論上建言。然而,對於過去赦免的具體作法與實踐情形,僅有行政機關在立法報告資料中扼要提及,並無整體性的考察與研究。本研究希望透過近年來逐漸公開之政府資訊,諸如各時期相關政府公報與檔案、文書,加上報章等媒體報導,系統性的整理分析百年來赦免的實踐情形。分就節慶式、文化史範疇的赦免,以及特殊案件的赦免,作更為細緻的類型化分析,以探尋中華民國赦免表達與實踐的獨特意涵。進一步地,透過前述對歷來赦免實踐的考察,思考不同階段的權力者,透過赦免的行使,如何展現其對國家,乃至國家秩序的想像,以及這類想像背後的權力運作形態與其演變脈絡。再者,希望透過這種對中華民國史上赦免實踐經驗的考察,反思歷來赦免規範的表達與實踐,並探尋兩者間存在的落差,分析其在國家法秩序上所呈現的微妙意涵。
It is an in-built authority of the Imperial Chinese court to declare a ‘universal pardon ‘for itssubjects. However, after the republic government transplanted the modern western legal system as consisting in state laws within constitutional order into post-revolution China, the western pardon was thus exercised under the administration before WWII in China and after WWII in Taiwan for a century. The practices of pardon display different features under the ROC government overlapping Sino-Western knowledge backgrounds throughout martial and post martial period.Most previous studies about pardon pointed at its meaning in the separation of powers while focused on its intervention in justice as an exceptional power. Some studies further examined the issues referring to the penalties assuming the legal function was hindered.Above studies short of an overview perspective but only tapping the brief reports from the legislative institutions. This study will employee diverse governmental sources opened to the public, e.g. the archives, announcements and media observations to sort out the different patterns. These patterns included the pardon for celebration, the pardon in cultural history and the pardon for extraordinary case.Further, this study will attempt to encode the state-imagination when a series of power-holders/ presidents exercised it in different historical phases while to disclose the exercise and evolution of state-power. It will also analyze the difference between its expression and practice in order to reveal its significance within the order of state- law.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_A0415_04_009
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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