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|Abstract:||由於臺灣青少年吸菸比率逐年上升，所以要預防青少年吸菸習慣的養成，應針對可能嘗試吸菸的小學高年級學生著手，然而國內對此階段學生之拒菸行為瞭解不多，因此，本研究以98學年度就讀於新北市的國小五、六年級學生為母群體進行調查，並以Pender健康促進模式為依據，探討影響國小高年級學童拒菸行為的相關因素，期能將研究結果作為推動菸害防制工作的參考。本研究以分層隨機抽樣法於各鄉鎮市中按國小學校比例抽出樣本學校，共選取新北市37所學校，五年級118班，六年級118班，經過實際的施測後，有效的回收問卷6,886份，回收率為98.1 %。本研究重要結果如下：1. 研究對象的菸害認知還有待加強，拒菸態度正向、菸品可近性很低、菸害課程學習經驗良好，所以有將近八成的研究對象能選擇拒菸行為，然而，仍有20.6%的研究對象很少與從未執行拒菸行為。2. 以變異數分析可知，拒菸行為在性別、父親教育程度、吸菸經驗，以及家長和朋友吸菸與否有顯著差異。另以皮爾森相關係數檢定可知，拒菸行為與菸害認知、拒菸態度和菸害課程學習經驗呈顯著正相關，另與菸品可近性呈負相關。3. 以階層迴歸分析檢定可知，個人特質與經驗因素、行為相關的特異性認知及情感反應因素之各變項能有效解釋10%的拒絕吸菸行為，其中以拒菸態度為最重要的決定因素。從標準化迴歸係數（β）亦可知所有影響因素中，拒絕吸菸行為與菸害認知、拒菸態度與菸害課程學習經驗為顯著正相關，而拒絕吸菸行為與性別、吸菸經驗、朋友是否吸菸、菸品可近性為顯著負相關；也就是研究對象是女生、沒有吸菸經驗、菸害認知與拒菸態度愈好、較多菸害課程學習經驗、朋友愈沒吸菸，以及平常接觸菸品可近性愈低者，愈能執行拒菸行為。根據研究發現，提出以下建議：1. 政府在菸害衛教內容中，應加強二手菸對學童的危害，與菸害防制法的宣導和加強取締，以利建立無菸環境，並減少學童接觸菸品機會。2. 教育單位亦需落實國小高年級學童的拒菸教育計畫與課程，以提升學童對菸害的認知與拒菸態度，進而強化拒菸行為的產生。|
As the prevalence of smokers in Taiwanese youth steadily increase year by year, the prevention of smoking behavior should start with upper-grade elementary students who may attempt to smoke. However, academic knowledge of the anti-smoking behaviors of students at this age is scarce in Taiwan. This study used 5th and 6th grade students of New Taipei City elementary schools in the 2009 academic years as the population and Pender Health Promotion Model as basis to study the various contributing factors of anti-smoking behavior in upper-grade elementary students in an effort to provide more information to the promotion of the ongoing anti-smoking behavior efforts.This study utilized stratified random sampling to select 37 schools from New Taipei City, with 118 classes of 5th graders and 6th graders each. The effective sample size was 6,886 for a return rate of 98.1%. The results were as follows:1. Smoking awareness of the target group remained to be strengthened. Most students held positive anti-smoking attitudes, had low accessibility of tobacco products, and had positive experience in anti-smoking courses. However, while nearly 80% of students chose anti-smoking behavior, 20.6% seldom or never executed anti-smoking behavior.2. The results of ANOVA test demonstrated that anti-smoking behavior was strongly correlated to gender, education level of father, smoking experience, and whether parents and friends were smokers. According to Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis, anti-smoking behavior was positively correlated to the knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking, anti-smoking attitudes, and experience in anti-smoking courses, and negatively correlated to accessibility of tobacco products.3. According to hierarchical regression analysis of the sample, factors such as individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitive and affect could account for 10% of anti-smoking behavior, with anti-smoking attitudes being the most decisive factor. In association, standard regression coefficient (β) demonstrated that of all factors, anti-smoking behavior was positively correlated to the knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking, anti-smoking behavior, and anti-tobacco course experience. Meanwhile, anti-smoking behavior was negatively correlated to gender, smoking experience, whether friends smoked, accessibility to tobacco products. In other words, the students who were females, had no smoking experience, had more knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking, had anti-smoking attitudes, had more anti-tobacco learning experience, had limited smoking friends, and had little accessibility to tobacco products would most likely be able to execute anti-smoking behavior.In conclusion, the findings of the research suggests:1. In order to establish a smoking-free environment and reduce children's access to the tobacco products, the government should emphasize the harms of the second-hand smoking to children and strengthen the advocacy and execution of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in the anti-smoking educational campaigns.2. Educational institutions need to provide solid anti-smoking education programs and curriculum for upper-grade elementary students to raise their knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking and anti-smoking attitudes, which further enhance to execute anti-smoking behavior.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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