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Title: 北宋的三次教育改革 (摘要)
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學教育學系
Issue Date: 1-Jun-1986
Publisher:  國立臺灣師範大學教育學系
Abstract: 我國自隋代開科取士之後,由唐至清,教育制度即與科舉制度同時並行;士子可以先入學校受教,然後再參加科舉入仕,亦可直接參加科舉,而不需接受學校教育。如此一來,科舉成為士子入仕的必經管道,而學校教育則可有可無,以致造成士子重科舉而輕學校,使得教育成為科舉的附庸。而且由於歷代政府,對於學校教育重視的程度又多不及科舉,因此歷史上遂只見取士而少有養士的政策。既然國家取士是以科舉為主,考試若能充份發揮選擇的功能,確實為國發掘到人才,則政事就可推動;否則所考非所用,必於政事之推動有所扞格。又科舉所取之士只重藝業而不知其德行有悖為政尚德輕才的傳統,尤為世所詬病。這種現象及問題,在北丹時期就已產生。當時由於內政外交上發生種種的困難,而政府又缺乏可用之才來應付難局,因此改革之呼聲,時有所聞。
Since the Sui dynasty in China a kind of scholar-officer examination system (analogous to the civil service examination system in the modern West) augurated and parrell to it a national educational system then developed. This has been carried on through the T'ang the Five Dynasty Period and up to the Northern Sung. It was due to the shortcoming that students and candidates were paying more attention to their examination than to their education three attempts were made to overcome it. Three attempts which were made during the reigns of Emperor Jen, Emperor Sheng and Emperor Hui of the Northern Sung dynasty were initiated by Fan Chung-yen, Wang An-shih and Ts'ai Ching respectively. In view that the reform movement was a critical turning-point in how to bring about a mutual supporting role of both the scholar-officer examination system and general education system in China, the writer has devoted his efforts in finding the historical development of the reform movement, its failure and its influence in later years. The thesis includes seven chapters: I. Introduction II. The social and educational background of the Northern Sung dynasty III.The first reform-Ch'ing Li period IV. The second reform-Hsi Feng period V. The third reform-Ch'ung Ning period VI. The analysis and discussion of each of the reforms VII.Conclusion In those reforms, two major trends have been shown: the first, the focus of the development of education has transfered from the minorities of the upper class to the majorities of middle and lower classes; and, in addition to the Kuo-Tsu Hsh, the dynasty has decided to established other institutions: the T'ai Hsh, county schools and district schools. The second, those reformers tried to make emphasis on general education in order to overcome the special attention paid to the scholar-officer examination. On the one hand, the reformers tried to build up a kind of educational system so that students could be educated from district school, county school to the T'ai Hsh and on the other hand, they tried to abolish the abused scholar-officer examination system. Unfortunately, for lack of sufficient conditions and cooperation to support those reforms, consequently they all failed. Although scholar-officer examination has been maintained as the main path of choosing the officers-to-be by the later years, the reforms of the Northern Sung dynasty in general educational system has been maintained continuiously up to the Ch'ing dynasty. The educational reform movements of the Northern Sung dynasty seemed to be failed but some of its merits in emphasising the general education for all classes of the people were carried on without being noticed.
ISSN: 1028-8708
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_A0103_01_006
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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