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Intervention and Characteristics of Children with Dysgraphia (II) (III)
|Abstract:||書寫是學校重要活動之一， 作為學生在學校活動中表達、紀錄、與 交換意見的溝通工具。 學齡學童若未發展出適齡的寫字能力，在學校課 堂中需要花較多的時間和精力在寫字上， 而忽略了課堂教師授課的內 容， 或跟不上老師上課速度作筆記， 進一步影響課業的學習。並且由於 書寫障礙的情況並不會因為隨著年紀之增長而有所改善， 若不積極介入 改善國小書寫困難學童的書寫能力， 對其日後之學習將有重大的影響。 特殊教育對身心障礙學生的教學， 希望藉由適當管道， 來協助學生 繞過其障礙， 充分參與學習， 電腦則是其中常被利用的工具之一。國外 針對如何利用電腦科技協助身心障礙學生有效學習， 已有相當的探討， 其研究的結果， 可提供我們在思考如何改善書寫障礙學生書寫困難時的 參考。 本計畫是一個三年期的連續性計畫。整個計畫以「人」為中心， 從 探討寫字困難學生寫字特性， 包括傳統的紙筆書寫以及在數位環境下的 書寫為出發點， 進而以此為基礎發展合適的介入方案， 並評估介入方案 之成效。 第一年（ 96 年度）計畫的重點在探討寫字困難學生寫字特性，包括 傳統以及數位的書寫， 將透過目前已有的書寫評量工具， 以及研究團隊 過去三年所研發的鍵盤與滑鼠評量工具來分析寫字困難學生的數位書寫 特性。 第二年（ 97 年度）計畫的重點在發展數位化寫字評量工具，彌補傳 統書寫評量工具之不足， 以增加對孩童書寫中動作特質的深入瞭解。並 配合子計畫二所發展的寫字心理認知的量表， 子計畫三、四、五所研發 之閱讀輔助軟體、寫作輔助軟體、情境化數位學習平台進一步瞭解寫字 困難學生的特質， 並以此作為發展介入方案之參考。 第三年（ 98 年度）計畫的重點在發展寫字困難學生的介入方案，包 括傳統的教學模式以及數位化介入方案。並透過單一受試研究法以及個 案分析， 驗證介入之成效。 藉由三年計劃的完成， 預期可更進一步瞭解寫字困難學生的書寫特 質以及數位特性， 提供適切之介入方案， 本研究小組在寫字困難學生數 位學習之經驗將可提供教育及復健專業人員介入時重要之參考。|
Handwriting is an important means of communication, which enables the expression, recording, and transmission of ideas of students throughout their educational career. Handwriting difficulty or dysgraphia was defined as a disturbance or difficulty in the production of written language that is related to the mechanics of writing. Children with dysgraphia usually spend more effort to write legibly compared to their peer. Difficulty in the mastery of the mechanical aspects of handwriting may interfere with the higher order processes required for the composition of text. Composition and essay exam are a frequent classroom requirement and are a great source of frustration for those struggling with the skill of handwriting. Researchers have suggested that handwriting difficulties may have serious consequences for the student’s academic progress, emotional well-being and social functioning. The difficulty of handwriting will not be remediated if untreated even when those children growing up. How to provide technology supports to help children with dysgraphia effective learning is a challenging task for education professions. This is a three-year project and the purpose of this project is to analyze the characteristics of children with dysgraphia in order to develop an accessible e-learning environment for them. The focus of the first year (2007) research is to study the characteristics of children with dysgraphia, including the difficulties and written errors of handwriting. In addition, those children’s abilities of using keyboard and mouse will also be investigated. The results of the first- year project will serve as the base for other team projects to develop the assisted reading and writing tools for children with dysgraphia. In this year, we try to recruit students with dysgraphia and train the research assistants to use the evaluation tools. In order to continue study this important issues, we propose 2-year project. Developing a digitizer handwriting evaluation tool will be the emphasis of the first year project (2008). The digitizer evaluation system is able to record kinematic and kinetic variables as the writer engages in various writing tasks. The result is a comprehensive collection of dynamic features that generates a more objective and precise set of handwriting outcome measures than had been previous attainable. The objective of the second year (2009) is to develop an e-learning environment for children with dysgraphia. By using the assisted reading and writing tools developed by other team projects, we try to provide children with dysgraphia an accessible e-learning environment in order to remediate the handwriting difficulties. Through 3 years’ extensive study, researchers will develop a more accessible e-environment for children with dysgraphia. Our experience on children with dysgraphia will provide a significant reference to other health and educational professionals who provide services for children who faced the same problems.
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