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Title: 「而且」和「再說」的篇章、語用功能與其教學應用
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學華語文教學系暨研究所
Issue Date: 31-Jul-2012
Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
Abstract: 研究計畫名稱: 遞進連詞「而且」與「再說」的篇章、語用功能與教學應用 本研究主要探討遞進連詞「而且」與「再說」之間的異同。過去文獻對兩者的討論大 都是針對「而且」或「再說」的個別探討,且多停留在語義和語法層面,鮮少跨入篇章或 語用層面,對「而且」與「再說」兩者的直接對比研究,更幾乎是付之闕如。 因此,本研究的目的之一,便是釐清「而且」、「再說」的基本核心語義和篇章之間的 演變關係。本文乃欲透過語法化的研究,來檢視「而且」、「再說」如何從其原始的詞彙意 義,演變至表帶有「遞進」之語法意義的連詞,再如何從表局部連接關係的連詞,演變成 表整體連接關係的連詞,最終進展至表承前啟後,不帶無實質意義的篇章標記詞。 其次,文獻的探討也大都僅著眼在「而且」與「再說」這兩個連詞在單句方面的句法 制約,然而語言實際交際中的基本單位並非詞彙或句子,而是表達完整思想的篇章,說話 者藉篇章功能使語言和語境發生關連。因此,本研究計畫冀望能超越傳統在語義、句法的 描述,進入篇章和語用功能的探討。在篇章方面,本研究計畫欲探討「而且」與「再說」 這在篇章中除了帶出跨句的遞進功能(及其細部分類)外,是否還有其他的篇章銜接功能。 在語用方面,本研究欲檢視說話者在使用「而且」與「再說」時,是否帶有不同的語用預 設、意圖、態度等,以及這些語用功能是否/如何透過特定的語用原則(合作原則、禮貌 原則、關聯理論)來達成。 最後,本文希望根據上述的語法/語義、篇章、語用三個層面的實際分析結果,以「教 學語法」的排序性和累進性的原則,針對遞進連詞「而且」與「再說」設計一份華語教材 設,作為華語教學的參考或補充材料。 本計畫的研究方法乃先透過文獻探討與批判,以建立「而且」與「再說」之的理論架 構,從而初步提出以下三個研究問題,然後再透過大量的實際語料加以驗證。 (1)「而且」、「再說」如何從其核心語義演變至整體連接詞,乃至無實詞義的篇章標記? (2)「而且」、「再說」的確切篇章功能及其差異為何? (3)「而且」、「再說」的確切語用功能及其差異為何? 本計畫嘗試補足先行文獻的缺口,將主要重點放在「而且」、「再說」的篇章和語用功 能之探索。不過也嘗試釐清兩者的語義功能和句法制約,使這三個語法點能獲更全面的探 討,以達到結合語言形式與溝通功能的目標。同時能呈現從句法、語義至篇章、語用功能 的漸進式教學原則。以下為本整合計畫的兩個研究步驟: 第一年:釐清「而且」、「再說」的語法化過程,以及其篇章功能的異同。 第二年:探索「而且」、「再說」語用功能,以及建構兩者在語法/語義、篇章、語用三個 方面的教學應用材料。
The Discourse and Pragmatic Functions of Erqie and Zaishuo and their Pedagogical Implications The proposed research project focuses on the different aspects of the two incremental conjunctions, erqie and zaishuo. Previous research has been primarily devoted to the description of grammatical meanings and syntactic constraints of these two conjunctions. For one thing, most previous studies do not clearly distinguish the semantic and pragmatic aspects of these two conjunctions. For another, there has been rare research on the direct contrast between erqie and zaishuo. Therefore, the primary purpose of the proposed research project is to clarify the core semantic meanings of erqie and zaishuo and their discourse functions. The present research project attempts to examine the grammaticalization of erqie and zaishuo, in order to see how these two words have evolved from their original lexical meanings, to an incremental conjunction that subsequently signal local link and global link, and finally to a discourse marker that does not carry any content meaning. Much previous research has focused solely on the syntactic constraints of these two conjunctions at the sentence level. Therefore, the proposed project aims to move beyond the traditional focus of semantic and syntactic descriptions and delve into discourse and pragmatic functions of erqie and zaishuo. At the discourse level, it attempts to investigate the extent to which these two conjunctions can signal increment relationships (in terms of its subcategories) or other relationships. At the pragmatic level, it attempts to examine if the speakers use these two conjunctions to signal different pragmatic presuppositions, attempts and attitudes, and if/how these pragmatic purposes are implemented through pragmatic principles, such as the Cooperative Principles, Politeness Principles, and Relevance Theory. The procedure of this proposed study will involve a review and critique of the research literature on erqie and zaishuo in order to construct the theoretical and analytical framework. The following three research questions are formulated and will be tested by a large amount of empirical data : (1) How do erqie and zaishuo evolve from their original lexical meaning, to conjunctive meaning of increment, and finally to a discourse maker that does not carry any content meaning? (2) What are the exact discourse functions of erqie and zaishuo? (3) What are the exact pragmatic functions of erqie and zaishuo? Overall, the proposed project aims to address the insufficiency of prior research on the discourse and pragmatic phenomena of erqie and zaishuo. But it also attempts to identify the core semantics and fundamental syntax of erqie and zaishuo. It is hoped that an overall picture can be drawn of how these three structures are used and interact with one another at different linguistic levels. Pedagogically, this proposed project will incorporate the results of the multi-level linguistic analysis into the framework of pedagogical grammar. The purpose is to provide teachers and textbook writers of L2 Chinese with information based on authentic language use and arranged according to the concepts of sequentiality and cumulativeness. Finally, the procedure of the proposed project involves a two-year span: 1st year: Clarify the grammaticalization process of erqie and zaishuo and the similarities and differences in terms of the discourse functions between the two. 2nd year: Explore the pragmatic functions of erqie and zaishuo and construct a teaching materials, based on the finings of the multi-level linguistic analysis.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_H0403_04_009
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