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Title: 「卻」和「倒」的篇章與語用功能
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學華語文教學系暨研究所
Issue Date: 31-Jul-2010
Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
Abstract: 本研究主要探討轉折副詞「卻」、「倒」之間的差異。過去文獻對兩者的討論大 都停留在語義和語法層面。一方面,文獻的分類往往將語義和語用混為一談,多將「卻」、 「倒」在特定語境之下所衍生的語用意涵,歸於其核心語義之內,因此本研究的目的之 一,便是釐清「卻」、「倒」的基本核心語義和語用衍生義。另一方面,文獻的探討也 大都僅著眼在兩個副詞單句方面的句法制約,然而語言實際交際中的基本單位並非詞彙 或句子,而是表達完整思想的篇章,說話者藉篇章功能使語言和語境發生關連。因此, 本研究計畫冀望能超越傳統在語義、句法的描述,進入篇章和語用言功能的探討。在篇 章方面,本研究計畫欲探討「卻」、「倒」在篇章是否能承載焦點信息,以及其在篇章 中所能拓展文意的超句範距為何;在語用方面,本研究欲檢視說話者在使用「卻」、「倒」 時,是否帶有不同的語用預設、意圖、態度等,以及這些語用功能是否/如何透過特定 的語用原則(合作原則、禮貌原則、關聯理論)來達成。 本計畫的研究方法乃先透過文獻探討與批判,以建立「卻」、「倒」之的理論架構, 從而初步提出以下三個研究問題,然後再透過大量的實際語料加以驗證。 (1)「卻」、「倒」是否有不同的篇章範距和焦點功能? (2)「卻」、「倒」是否有不同的語用語設? (3)「卻」、「倒」的用法,兩岸是否有所差異? 本計畫嘗試補足先行文獻的缺口,將主要重點放在「卻」、「倒」的篇章和語用 功能之探索。不過也嘗試釐清兩者的語義功能和句法制約,使這三個語法點能獲更全面 的探討,以達到結合語言形式與溝通功能的目標。同時能呈現從句法、語義至篇章、語 用功能的漸進式教學原則。 以下為本計畫的三個研究步驟: 第一:釐清「卻」、「倒」的語義功能和句法制約 第二:探索「卻」、「倒」的篇章和語用功能 第三:將「卻」、「倒」的語義功能、句法制約、篇章功能納入教學語法的架構中,以 循序漸進的連續面來達成教與學的目標,同時考慮兩岸在使用上的異同。
The proposed research project focuses on the different aspects of the two contrastive adeverbs, que and dao. Previous research has been primarily devoted to the description of grammatical meanings and syntactic constraints of these two adverbs. For one thing, most previous studies do not clearly distinguish the semantic and pragmatic aspects of these two adverbs; oftentimes, the contextually derived meanings are treated as the core meanings. Additionally, many previous research have focused solely on the syntactic constraints of these two adverbs at the sentence level. However, the basic unit of human communication is not the word or sentence but the discourse structure on which a complete thought is based. The speaker relates the language to a given situation by means of a series of discourse functions. Therefore, the proposed project aims to move beyond the traditional focus of semantic and syntactic description and delve into discourse and pragmatic functions of que and dao. At the discourse level, the present proposed project attempts to investigate the extent to which these two adverbs can carry information focus and what their discourse scopes are in signaling textual coherence. At the pragmatic level, this proposed project aims to examine if the speakers use these two adverbs to signal different pragmatic presuppositions, attempts and attitudes, and if/how these pragmatic purposes are implemented through pragmatic principles, such as the Cooperative Principles, Politeness Principles, and Relevance Theory. A survey of the research literature on que and dao yields few results. In terms of part of speech, they are either considered to be adverbs or conjunctions, but no linguistic tests are provided to distinguish these two parts of speech. As far as meaning is concerned, que and dao are often treated as two synonymous words that convey contrastiveness. But few ever touch upon the discourse and pragmatic aspects of these two adverbs. The present proposed project disputes such an indiscriminate treatment of que and dao, based upon the Principle of Economy in language use. It is argued in this proposed project that the speakers opt to use que and dao each to reach a different communicative purpose. After an initial investigation and critique on previous relevant studies, the project proposes the following three research questions: (1) Are there different discourse scope and information focus conveyed by que and dao? (2) Are there different pragmatic presuppositions conveyed by que and dao? (3) Are there cross-strait difference in the use of que and dao between Taiwan and the Mainland China? Overall, the proposed project aims to address the insufficiency of prior research on the discourse and pragmatic phenomena of f que and dao. But it also attempts to identify the core semantics and fundamental syntax of que and dao. It is hoped that an overall picture can be drawn of how these two adverbs are used and interact with one another at different linguistic levels. Pedagogically, this project will incorporate the results of the multi-level linguistic analysis into the framework of pedagogical grammar. The purpose is to provide teachers and textbook writers of L2 Chinese with information based on authentic language use and arranged according to the concepts of sequentiality and cumulativeness.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_H0403_04_008
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