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A Study of Gender Ideology in the Japanese Middle School Fine Art Textbooks
Jo Chiung-Hua Chen
Japanese Middle School Fine Art Textbooks
This research investigated eighteen Japanese middle school fine art textbooks for the presentation of women and men by quantitative and qualitative research methods through the use of content analysis. The use of content analysis for this research was quite equivalent since the research technique has been known for its reliability both textual and image analysis of textbooks for the presentation of women and other groups in the society. This analysis employed both quantitative and qualitative to answer three research questions: 1. The gender dynamic of art works introduced in the textbooks. 2. The role all the images shown in the textbooks portray women and men as having. 3. The presentation of women and men in sentences (texts). The analysis of the eighteen fine art textbooks revealed that the number of art works by male artists introduced outnumbered that of artworks by female artists. This finding came despite that fact that images of women appeared in the textbooks had almost equal number as that of images of men. Also, the images of both women and men had tendency being portrayed as having socially favorable role. The images of men were likely to be characterized non-domestically and to have art and creative role. The sentences in all the textbooks, however, did not show significant result showing gender-stereotypical expression. This research represented the addition of art education to demonstrate that content analysis of textbooks represented one of many examples of critical pedagogy. The result of this study would seem to support the arguments of educators calling for the inclusion of diverse perspectives in the curriculum of fine art through critical pedagogy. Further investigations regarding to this particular issue has been suggested for more concrete and persuasive outcomes in order to obtain wider recognition of inequity from which Japanese women have been constrained.
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