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Study of the International Poster Design Competition's Operation Model－A Case of the Taiwan International Poster Design Award
International design competition
競賽知名度及得獎殊榮是參賽重要誘因；多數競賽為政府或是文化單位舉辦，不須繳交報名費，而商業組織辦理之競賽則收取報名費；廣宣主要藉國際平面設計社團協會（Icograda）、Rene Wanner's Poster Page網站及主辦單位資料庫推廣，或與國家性設計組織策略聯盟促進；研究發現獎金高低對收件數增減未呈現顯著關連性，國際競賽吸引參賽的誘因包括博物館作品典藏、辦理展覽、頒獎典禮、線上展覽及提供獎項標章；多數主辦單位在得獎作品有專門典藏（如博物館、美術館）及展覽；另商業類及墨西哥海報雙年展報名作業採用網路應用系統。
This research systematically investigates the effects of isolated factors on international poster design competition operational models. The results will benefit the planning and operation of the Taiwan International Poster Design Award and related activities by increasing conformity other with international competitions and increasing operational results. First, primary and secondary sources related to international poster competitions were collected, with a focus on operational background, methodology, rules, and current status. These sources, as well as personal interviews, were then used to understand the competitions’ organizational structure and operational models, including their operational frameworks, judging systems, workflow, promotional activities, and subsequent applications. To effectively investigate the operational model of the Taiwan International Poster Design Award competition, the corporate 3P method was used: namely overall Performance = managerial and employee competence (People) x regulations and managerial workflow (Process) x Tool applications and IT systems (Programs). The current operational model was compared to those of similar competitions and attempts were made to identify inadequacies and issues that must be addressed. This information can then be used as a reference for planning future contests or implementing organization reform, and can help increase productivity. It was discovered that international poster competitions share important similarities, given below: 1.Managerial and Employee Competence International design competitions are hosted primarily by organizations involved in cultural or promotional work which are heavily subsidized by the government. Private corporations that act as hosts are often engaged in a variety of design, with posters being just one aspect of their work. Most competitions are endorsed by the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda), with judging generally done by well known professionals from both the host country and other countries. The competitions are held to increase international exchange, promote industry growth, nurture talent, and promote design, art, and culture. They also have standing committees and operational teams to undertake competition planning and selection and invitation of international judges. 2. Regulations and Management Workflow Depending on the host organization and the goals of the competition, themes range from social/environmental awareness, to culture/art or commerce, or they may be unrestricted. Many competitions have no restrictions to entry, using only the results as the basis for judgement. Many are limited to works produced within a certain time frame, and some limit the number of entries. Judging criteria is primarily by means of summary, using 2 rounds of judging. The research discovered a correlation between the number of countries and entries, but no clear correlation between the number of entries and the win rate. 3. Tool Applications and IT Systems A competitions name recognition and prizes are important incentives to participate. Many are hosted by governments or cultural organizations and are free to enter; whereas those hosed by commerical organizations usually charge entry fees. Promotion is largely done via Icograda, Rene Wanner's Poster Page, and the hosting organization’s database, or by national level design allicance organizations. Research found that the amount of prize money is does not have a clear correlation to the number of entries received. International competitions attract competitors by offering displays in a museum or gallery, exhibitions of winning works, awards ceremonies, online exhibits, and medals. A number of hosting organizations provide for winning works to be displayed in museums or exhibitions. Some commerical organizations sponsored competitions and the International Poster Biennale in Mexico also offer online contest application. Research shows that in Asia the Taiwan International Poster Design Award is second in size only to the International Poster Triennial Toyama. After three years its scope is roughly the same as other similar international competitions, and it is currently Taiwan’s only on-going poster competition attracting professional entrants. It has already become a platform for increasing international exchange and increasing awareness of Taiwanese design. In order to increase the competitions’ operational performance, we recommend the following creative measures: 1. Recommendations Relating to People Build a brand; focus on what’s unique; hire a support organization; continue to grow. Move toward a commerical, comprehensive design model, gradually adopting application fees. Establish standing operational and promotional groups and committees to strengthen planning capabilities and organizational structure, and make operations systematic and productive. Continue to apply for Icograda endorsement, and strengthen cooperation with overseas organizations. 2. Recommendations Relating to Process Position the competition as a professional poster competition, held once every 2 years, with no limits on entry or the number of entries, other than that all entries be printed works from the past three years. Themes should be related to business and promotional activities (including social welfare). The judging process should be divided into two stages and three rounds of judging: The first stage involves judging by the host organization and domestic judges, in order to save time. The second stage should be broken into two rounds; both rounds may be judged by the same international or domestic judges. The first round of judging selects the works that will be put on exhibition. Exhibition may be arranged or prizes awarded immediately. The final round of judging may be done the following day or later. In the future the competition should try to increase the number of countries represented, and adjust the number of prizes so that 10%-15% of entrants win awards. 3. Recommendations Relating to Tools Select a professional organization (museum or gallery) to arrange a permanent display, in order to preserve important cultural resources and facilitate ongoing research. If this proves difficult, then a digital exhibition should be established with a dedicated website serving as a communication platform to store winning works and allow for diverse application, exchange, and display. Numerous prizes should be given rather than one large prize, to strengthen promotional effect and increase name recognition. A competition database and knowledge platform should be established, along with an online application management system and barcode system to digitize application, submission, receipt and sorting, judging, announcements and status updates, and reporting. The competition should also plan affiliated value added activities and undertake product development (e.g. catalogues, notebooks) The above research on common features and creative suggestions for future competitions may prove helpful to the Taiwan International Poster Design Award and other similar competitions.
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