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Title: 明代洪武官窯研究
A Study of Imperial Ceramic of the Hong-Wu Period in The Ming Dynasty
Authors: 曾肅良教授
Keywords: 明代洪武
Hongwu period of the Ming Dynasty
imperial manufactories
blue-and-white porcelain
underglaze red porcelain
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 摘要 明代洪武瓷器及其斷代,是近年來陶瓷研究者們熱烈討論和關注的一個課題,隨國內外學者對它的深入研究,從對文獻史料的鉤沉到御器廠的實地挖掘,及對散佈在世界各博物館,擬為洪武瓷藏品的排比、分析,到元末明初瓷器斷代的歸納總結,瞭解洪武官瓷的確實存在,惟今掌握了部份洪武斷代的時代特徵。 1952年波普教授(John Alexnder Pope)提出「至正型青花瓷器」理論,開啟了學術界對元青花的研究和重視,同時明代洪武瓷器的考證、區別,必然是息息相關的問題,它有著承先啟後的重要性。因為過去學術界無法辨認出,元代及明初的瓷器差異,由本篇論文希望將現今這一問題釐清。 在中國瓷器發展史中,明代是一個非常重要的時期,以其突出的貢獻,在工藝史上佔有顯著的地位,特別是景德鎮瓷器燒造技術在宋、元的基礎上都有了很大提昇,燒製瓷器技術得到了全面發展,除了正式設「御窯廠」,明代初期洪武時期的青花瓷器、釉裡紅瓷器以及顏色釉瓷器如曇花一現,尤為短暫,稀少、珍貴。 本論文針對洪武時期的青花瓷器、釉裡紅瓷器為主進行研究,隨著考古的發掘和研究,明洪武瓷器的面貌逐漸被人們所認識。筆者一共蒐集了254件洪武官瓷,從這些器物的紋飾、造型、底足、釉色等方面,進行比較與分析,第五章再對青花瓷器與釉裡紅器,在製作工藝、釉水現象、縮釉、漏釉現象上分析,並描述出時代工藝特徵及現象,在器物坏胎、分段的接痕現象,導出明洪武官瓷與其它朝代不同之處。 中國的陶藝發展到了明代洪武,進入了一個新的承先啟後的時代,對於本文內所敘述的十三種洪武官瓷類型為主軸,加以對釉料、底足工藝等做一初步的研究,綜合以上的分析,企圖尋求出鑑別洪武瓷器的基本原理原則。
Abstract Early Ming Dynasty porcelain, and the question of which pieces date from the Hongwu reign period of the Early Ming and which from the preceding Yuan Dynasty or from later reign periods, has been the focus of a great deal of discussion among ceramics experts and researchers over the last few years. Scholars both in Taiwan and overseas have undertaken in-depth research, both textual and archeological, and have implemented extensive comparison and analysis of the examples of Early Ming porcelain held in the collections of museums in various parts of the world. This research has confirmed the operation of official, state-run porcelain manufactories during the Hongwu period of the Early Ming, and has clarified some of the main points that can be used to distinguish Hongwu porcelain from earlier, Yuan Dynasty pieces, or from later pieces. In 1952, Professor John Alexander Pope put forward his theory regarding the production of blue-and-white porcelain during the Zhizheng era (the final reign period of the Yuan Dynasty). Pope’s work sparked a global upsurge in interest in Yuan Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain, which was naturally accompanied by a wave of new research on the authentication and classification of porcelains that had previously been assumed to date from the Hongwu era of the Early Ming. In the past, scholars have found it very difficult to distinguish between Late Yuan porcelain and Early Ming porcelain; the present study seeks to clarify how Yuan and Ming porcelains can be distinguished with greater precision. The Ming Dynasty is one of the most important periods in the evolution of Chinese porcelain. Ming Dynasty porcelain occupies a special place in the history of ceramics production; in particular, the Jingdezhen porcelain manufactories (building on the foundations that had already been established in the Song and Yuan dynasties) achieved an impressive level of technical mastery. Porcelain manufacturing technology advanced by leaps and bounds; besides the establishment of official, state-run imperial manufactories, the Hongwu era also saw the development of new forms of blue-and-white, underglaze red porcelain and color-glazed porcelain. Today, the relatively few pieces that survive from this period have become priceless treasures. The present study focuses on blue-and-white and underglaze red porcelain from the Hongwu period. In recent years, archeological discoveries and historical research have gradually improved our understanding of the distinguishing features of Hongwu porcelain. The author has undertaken in-depth comparison and analysis of a collection of 254 pieces from the Hongwu era imperial manufactories, examining the decorative motifs, the forms, the bases, and the glazes used. Chapter Five discusses the manufacturing processes, glazes, glaze shrinkage and exposed glaze phenomenon with respect to both blue-and-white and underglaze red porcelain, and outlines the key features of the techniques used in each period. This chapter demonstrates how differences in the biscuit and in the marks left where individual sections of the piece were attached can be used to distinguish porcelain dating from the Hongwu era of the Ming Dynasty from pieces dating from other periods. The Hongwu period of the Ming Dynasty marked the beginning of a new era in the development of Chinese porcelain, while at the same time retaining many elements from the past. It is anticipated that the 13 categories of Hongwu era pieces from the Imperial Manufactories that are identified in this study, along with the preliminary research on glaze materials and base techniques that are presented here, will provide a useful foundation for the authentication of Hungwu era porcelain in the future.
Other Identifiers: GN0092603015
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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