Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/114727
Title: 國家文化政策與國立歷史博物館的演化
National Cultural Policy and the Evolution of National Museum of History
Authors: 張譽騰
Cheng, Yui-Tan
陳嘉翎
Chen, Chia-Ling
Keywords: 國家文化政策
國立博物館
國立歷史博物館
文化治理
演化
national culture policy
national museum
National Museum of History
cultural governance
evolution
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: 本論文主要在於探討國家文化政策對國立博物館創建與發展的影響,並以國立歷史博物館(以下簡稱史博)為主要研究對象。其理由在於:1955年,史博在特殊的歷史情境下奉令籌設,成為戰後臺灣第一所國家級博物館,以奉行國策為前提,扮演著國家文物典藏、展覽場域與研究詮釋之重要角色,以推展社會教育;在史博創建後其60 餘年的進程中,為順應國家不同階段的政策發展,因而展現出不同的肌理與樣貌,讓史博成為國立博物館受國家文化政策影響的具體代表。所以,本論文將以Tony Bennett 所主張:「政府設置博物館是以文化治理為目的」作為理論基礎,運用公文檔案、文獻資料、報紙報導、展覽圖錄、口述歷史等史料作為文本,並從生物學隱喻的觀點,將史博視為一個有機體,考察自1950年至2018 年間,國家文化政策的發展如何讓史博創生與推移的一段演化歷程。 本研究將史博演化歷程劃分為兩大主體部分:第一部分為「中國化意象與國家認同形塑:在國族中誕生的博物館」,首先追溯1950 至1980 年代中期,史博在戰後臺灣戒嚴的威權體制下創建與發展的過程,其如何全力配合「去日本化、再中國化」、「反共抗俄」與「中華文化復興運動」等國家政策,致力成為現代中華文化藝術的展示櫥窗;第二部分為「全球與在地的辯證:朝向市場與社會向度的博物館」,繼而考掘史博在1987 年國家解嚴以後的民主化發展中,在臺灣主體意識下,如何揉合現代化、本土化、全球化、社會化與在地化等文化政策,以及面臨博物館時代的來臨,又如何積極從事不同的轉型與創新,以求自主與永續經營。本論文在上述兩大主體下,並依據史博歷任館長的文化治理特色及其所呈現出來的演化態勢,進而歸納為以下四個時期,包括:一、社會教育政策與史博的創建:蔣中正總統、張其昀部長、包遵彭籌備主任時期(1950.03-1956.02);二、「中國化」政策與史博的發展:包遵彭、王宇清、何浩天、李鼎元館長時期(1956.03-1986.01);三、本土化/ 全球化政策與史博的轉型:陳癸淼、陳康順、黃光男、曾德錦、黃永川館長時期(1986.02-2009.12);四、社會化/ 在地化政策與史博的創新:張譽騰、陳登欽、陳濟民、廖新田館長時期(2010.01-2018.06)。經上述研究發現,史博作為一所國立博物館,其演化歷程與國家文化政策相互脈動且深受影響;史博歷任館長也唯有在各個時期的國家文化政策下作出呼應與實踐,始有自主與對話的空間。綜上所述,史博個案說明了國立博物館在政治環境發展中的能動性與因應之道,就如同一個物種與其棲地的演化關係。
The thesis mainly discusses the effect cultural policy of a country has upon the founding and development of national museums, while the National Museum of History (NMH) is used as the main target of research. The reasons are as follows: NMH was built by order in a special historical context in 1955 and became the first national museum in post-war Taiwan, and based on the premise of complying with national policy, it plays an important role in the collection of cultural artifacts of the country, providing exhibition areas, and research interpretation in order to promote social education; more than 60 years after the founding of NMH, it developed different aspects from the inside out according to different stages of policy development of the country, becoming an actual representative of national culture policy affecting national museums. Therefore, using Tony Bennett's argument, “the government builds museums for the purpose of cultural governance,” as the theoretical basis and official documents, literature, news report, exhibition catalogue, and oral history as the context, and viewing the NMH as an organism from a metaphoric perspective of biology, the thesis investigates the cultural policy development of a country changing and innovating the NMH from 1950 to 2018. The research divides the development process of the NMH into two major parts: The first part, “Image of China and formation of national identity: the museum born in a nation,” traces the founding and development of the NMH in the 1950s post-war Taiwan under martial law and discusses how it gave full cooperation in“Uprooting Japan, Desinicize,” “Anti-communist and Anti-Soviet Union,” and national culture policies such as the “Chinese Culture Revival Movement,” endeavoring to become a display window for modern Chinese culture and art. The second part, “Dialogues between the global and the local: the museum oriented towards market and social dimensions,”goes on to investigate the democratization development of the NMH in Taiwan after the end of martial law in 1987. This part discusses how the NMH integrated culture policies such as modernization, indigenization, globalization and localization under the Taiwan consciousness, and how it faced the advent of an era of museums and actively engaged in transformations and innovations in order to achieve an independent and sustainable operation. Under the two subjects mentioned above, the NMH can be divided into four periods based on the past directors' features of cultural governance as well as their state of evolution: 1. the social education policy and founding of NMH: the period of Chiang Kai-shek, Chang Chi-yun, and Pao Tsunpeng (1950.03-1956.02); 2. The “Desinicize” policy and development of NMH: the period of Pao Tsun-peng, Wang Yu-ching, Ho Hao-tien, and Lee Ting-yuan (1956.03-1986.01); 3. the indigenization / globalization policy and transformation of NMH: the period of Chen Kuei-miao, Chen Kang-shun, Huang Kuang-nan, Tseng Te-chin, and Huang Yung-chuan (1986.08-2009.12); 4. the Socialization localization policy and innovation of NMH: the period of Chang Yui-tan, Chen Teng-chin, Chen Chi-ming, and Liao Hsin-tien (2010.01-2018.06). The above research finds the NMH, as a national museum, developed in accordance with national culture policy and was deeply affected by them; it was only when the past directors of NMH echoed and implemented national culture policies of each stage that the NMH gained spaces for independent actions and dialogues. In conclusion, the NMH case illustrates that the way NMH developed its agency and coping strategies under the political environment is like the evolution relationship between a species and its habitat.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G080060004T%22.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/114727
Other Identifiers: G080060004T
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