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A Study on the Image-Cropping for the Second Composition of Camera-Phone Landscape Photos
“You don’t take a photograph, you make it.” by landscape photographer Ansel Adams. Camera-phones feature their instance, simple interface, high accessibility, and low knowledge threshold to photographers. As a result, camera-phones have been the most commonly used photographing tools for the general public or beginners learning photography. Thanks to their instance in capturing flash moments and the rapidly-developing photographing hardware and image processing software, camera-phones are gradually accepted by professional photographers for multiple proposes, such as the press industry, commercial photo-shooting, and even movie industry. However, the second composition still plays an essential role in camera-phone photography to offset the limited time to capture the flash moments. Furthermore, there is still a large qualitative gap between professional and amateur photography using the same camera-phone. To further improve the amateur photography acquired from camera-phones, this study aims to assess the effects of the second composition on the quality of camera-phone photography through image-cropping. Particularly, image composition is fundamental for successful landscape photography. Therefore, this study focuses on the second composition of camera-phone landscape photography as a proof of principle. After literature-review, we select 10 rules for image-composition through image-cropping as our guidelines to crop camera-phone images for the better second image-composition. The 10 rules can be subdivided by 8 rules in the camera-phone built-in tic-tac-toe reference in composition (Central composition, three-point composition, golden section composition, horizontal composition, Vertical composition, Symmetric composition, Diagonal composition, Triangle composition), and 2 rules from observation (Guide line and Frame composition). Next, we conduct our case-study research on the performance of the selected 83 beginners in learning photography, who mainly use camera-phones for photography. The 83 participants were asked to create a second composition of their own camera-phone landscape pictures according to the provided image-composition guidelines. After the task, the 83 participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire to inquire about their opinions about the imaging-cropping on the visual effects of the results. Our case-study found that when the camera-phone images were cropped for the second composition, the focus of the images was readjusted. According to this survey, this readjustment is sufficient for the participants to reinterpret the mood of the newly-composed landscape photos, and spur unexpected results from the imaging moments for the original works. During the process of image-cropping for the second composition, participants were able to re-assess the composition of the original images and the newly-composed images, which meets the value of the second creation in image composition. In practice, these composition rules can balance out the visual effects of landscape photography, which highlights the importance of image-cropping for second composition to readjust the visual structure of landscape photos. Therefore, applying these guidelines when cropping imaging for second composition is prominently useful for amateur landscape photographers. By summarizing the rules of second compositions from literature-reviews and analyzing the case-study results obtained in this research, this research can serve as the evidence-bases for the follow-up studies in the future and could be possibly generalized for multiple types of photography. The expected results from this research and the follow-up investigation will be the foundation for developing user-friendly photography software in the camera-phone industry or help photography beginners to master image composition.
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