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Title: 競爭型計畫與高等教育機構校務運作之研究—以獎勵大學教學卓越計畫為例
The Study on the Competitive Grant and the Development of Higher Education Institutions-Taking the Teaching Excellence Project as an Example
Authors: 王麗雲
Wang, Li-Yun
Liu, Ming-Feng
Keywords: 政策工具
policy instrument
competitive grant
the Program for Promoting Excellence in Teaching in Higher Education
institutional governance in higher education
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 臺灣為求在全球高度競爭的教育市場脫穎而出,同時卻又面臨政府財政緊縮的困境,績效導向的競爭型計畫獎助制度成為主要的高等教育政策工具之一。過去10多來年在高等教育場域實施的主要競爭型計畫包含頂大計畫、教卓計畫與典範科大計畫等三項目,而本研究聚焦於教卓計畫做為研究主軸,以了解教卓計畫的推動對高等教育機構內部產生哪些作用、高等教育機構如何實踐與因應挑戰,並進而檢視競爭型計畫做為政策工具的成效表現。簡言之,本研究希望以高等教育機構的觀點視角,了解競爭型計畫對大學實踐之影響。 本研究採用個案研究中的多重個案研究法,藉由訪談及文件分析等方式蒐集資料,進而深入探究當前高等教育機構爭取及執行教卓計畫的真實現況。訪談對象為大學實際執行教卓計畫的業務主管、系所主管、行政或資料分析人員。透過立意與滾雪球取樣方法,本研究共計訪談6種類型、11所大學、25位不同層級之教卓計畫執行人員。 本研究結果發現:(一)教卓計畫之目標與內容規劃有其侷限性,其目標設定應以特色發展為或獎優汰劣面向為主,並同時修正未設定定期檢視或退場機制、管考機制未能充份反映執行者之表現、缺乏數據支持概念等侷限;(二)競爭型計畫做為政策工具有其內生性限制,例如制度規劃導致過於競爭之情形,加上執行計畫與成果可近性之侷限,導致典範與模式無法有效擴散;(三)教卓計畫做為政策工具確實會對大學校務經營產生影響,特別是計畫中的評選、補助、與成效檢核機制對於大學的影響層面較大。為解決機構面臨之挑戰,大學主要聚焦於執行計畫之內在困難與因應策略,並形塑不同之目標設計與計畫建構策略。依據本研究之研究成果,針對政策主導機關與大學提出具體建議。
Many efforts have been made to promote and sustain higher education excellence in Taiwan as higher education has become increasingly competitive across the nations. Given there are limited funding resources, one of the most effective policy strategies is to use competitive grants. The aim of this dissertation is to analyze the effectiveness of using a competitive grant strategy, The Program for Promoting Excellence in Teaching in Higher Education (hereafter the Teaching Excellence), as a policy tool for higher education in Taiwan. Specifically, this dissertation examines (1) the impacts of the Teaching Excellence on higher education institutions and (2) reactions of the institutions in addressing the Teaching Excellence competitive project. The goal is to understand how a competitive grant was received and implemented from the perspective of higher education institutions. This study adopted a multiple-case research approach. Interviews and documentary analysis were used for data collection. These methods were used to gain insights into different strategies that higher education institutions used when applying for the Teaching Excellence, and the process and the experience of program implementation after they received funding. Purposive sampling and snowball sampling were both used to invite interviewees, including administrators, faculty and staff in higher education institutions, with a total of 25 interviewees from 11 universities. There are three main findings. First, the goal and some substance of the Teaching Excellence need changes. Because teaching is one of the core missions of universities, it is not a proper goal of the competitive grant. Therefore, a higher education institute that is awared with the Teaching Excellence grant should be acknowledged as a distinctive educational insititute. Moreover, the Teaching Excellence should include an ongoing and evidence-based evaluation system that examines the fidelity and outcome of the program implementation. Having a systemic guideline isnecessary to increase the effectiveness of the Teaching Excellence project. Second, due to the comeptietive nature of this type of the grant, there are a limitations. The competitive grant is awarded through a contest, which implies a form of exclusion. In order to win the grant constantly over other institutions, universities were hesitant about sharing successful experiences with the public. This phenomenon has led to the limited dissemination of a successful model. Lastly, the findings of Teaching Excellence show an impact on the governance and development of higher education institutions, especially in the aspect of accreditation, funding calendars, and evaluation. Although universities experience some internal and external challenges as they seek out the funding, they strive to find solutions, which most solutions pertain to making internal changes, and create effective strategic plans to win the grant. This study also provides recommendations for policymakers and higher education institutions based on findings.
Other Identifiers: G080100007E
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