創齡、創能—武林盛會發展史:以全國老人福利機構運動會為例 History of Wulin grand gathering of “Active aging, enhancing capacity”: An example of Nationwide Senior Welfare Organization Game

Yen, Fei-Fei
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全球高齡化是世界的趨勢,臺灣亦同;人口老化和平均餘命延長,接踵而來是退化失能機率的增加,養護型長照機構需求更多,國家社會醫療照護成本的負擔益形沉重。綜觀文獻皆指出運動對一般健康、罹病、失能高齡者皆有益處;運動會也有助於養成運動習慣、提升生心理健康,增加成就和社會參與。財團法人私立永信社會福利基金會(以下簡稱永信基金會)所籌辦的「『創齡,銀向樂活』全國老人福利機構運動會」(以下簡稱運動會)則為此因應而生。本研究期待探究運動會發展之歷史脈絡與要素,透過歷史資料及訪談運動專家、活動主要籌辦者及參與推動者,探討運動會發展之緣起、歷史背景、脈絡及要素;並發現未來發展挑戰,提出解決策略;希冀研究結果能提供政府和民間機構參考,在長照計畫推動之時也能重視運動會推廣的重要。 為重建運動會之歷史脈絡,以了解運動會的發展過程及要素,使用田野調查,包含相關資訊蒐集及運動會當天全程參與觀察進行初步瞭解;並在蒐集相關史實於文獻分析後,欲訪談參與籌備之運動專家和活動主要籌畫者,及參與推動者,立意取樣共11位研究參與者。採用詮釋觀點之歷史分析法賦予事件新義。研究時間計畫在2018年3月8日至12月31日之間。計畫研究參與者撥冗1至2次60分鐘的時間,於其方便之地點接受半結構式之深度訪談,在歸納整理逐字稿後重建運動會發展脈絡。最後藉由發展過程之經驗發現未來發展可能的困境,並透過SWOT策略分析,研擬未來失能高齡者運動會發展之問題解決策略。 研究結果將運動會劃分為三個時期,分別為第一階段、倡議萌芽及運動發展期;第二階段、運動實驗及運動會嘗試發展期;第三階段、運動套裝課程及運動會基礎奠定期;透過這三階段中之發展經驗檢視未來永續發展瓶頸,藉由SWOT分析後,分別歸納為內部優勢、內部劣勢及外部機會和外部威脅,透過交叉分析來思考初擬運動會未來發展困境解決策略,為:(一)失能高齡者參與運動會益處觀念的推展;(二)透過量化及質性研究確立運動會對失能高齡者健康之效益;(三)運動會的推動辦理之行動策略。 總結發展歷程所得之結論,瞭解在第一階段倡議萌芽及運動發展期為:(一)失能高齡者能夠運動之觀念的推展有其重要性、(二)辦理「目標性」的活動可促進運動動機及頻率;第二階段運動實驗及運動會嘗試發展期為:(一)實驗研究結果有助於失能高齡者運動觀念的推廣、(二)籌辦運動會之管理規劃具關鍵性之影響;第三階段運動套裝課程及運動會基礎奠定期為:(一)合適的套裝課程可促進運動的推展、(二)網路平臺的風行可促進失能高齡者運動會觀念的推廣、(三)辦理單位團結分工合作是籌辦成功的重要因素、(四)參與單位和照護人員的積極配合可促成長輩運動及參與運動會、(五)資金的充裕是運動會圓滿的重要關鍵。繼之陳述運動會對失能高齡者在運動、生理、心理、社交、文化方面皆有具體改變及影響之成果。由SWOT分析問題所得,與研究參與者關於未來發展綜合討論之研擬解決策略結論為:(一)失能高齡者參與運動會益處觀念的推展有其關鍵性、(二)透過量化及質性研究確立運動會對失能高齡者健康之效益有其助益性、(三)失能高齡者運動會推動辦理有其重要性。也看到運動會舉辦可促進文化交流,促使跨領域共襄盛舉,具提升整體規模經濟之效益。冀望本研究在觀念繼續的推廣、未來研究,及運動會辦理,及政府跨部會整合及民間跨領域的投入,提供政府及民間單位執行政策、辦理活動之參考。
Over the previous decades, global aging has been the trend worldwide, with Taiwan being no exception. Critical attention has been given to the issue of longer life expectancy of the aging population leads to an increase in the rate of degeneration and disabilities. It thus creates a greater need for long-term care facilities and increases the burden on medical and social care. A detailed review of literatures shows that exercise is beneficial to the aged, especially to the chronically ill or disabled. Sports events likewise help in developing exercise habits, improving physical and mental health, and increasing the sense of self-affirmation and social integration. The “Active aging, embracing happy life” Nationwide Senior Welfare Organization Game (hereinafter referred to as “the Games”) organized by Yongxin Social Welfare Foundation was developed accordingly. The goal of this study is to trace the historical development and related factors of the Games by reviewing the literatures and interviews with a physical education expert, main organizers, and promoters. The research aims to understand possible challenges in its future development, as well as propose strategies for resolution for the consideration of related governmental and non-governmental agencies to place proper emphasis on the Games, especially when long-term care programs are officially introduced. Fieldwork and direct observation of the games were performed to collect relevant information for understanding the historical content, development process, and elements of the Games. In addition, after collecting relevant historical facts for literature analysis, 11 participants, including a physical education expert, main organizers, and promoters, were selected for interviews. The use of interpretive historical analysis gave a new meaning to the events. The study was scheduled between March 8 and December 31, 2018, wherein participants were asked once or twice to engage in in-depth interviews for a period of 60 minutes. The development process of the Games was reconstructed after summarizing and sorting out verbatim scripts. By uncovering future development challenges through an understanding of the development process and SWOT strategy analysis, the problem-solving strategies for the future senior organization game for the incapacitated were created. The results of this study indicate that the development of the Games can be divided into three stages. The first stage was the period that sprouted from the advocacy and development of exercise. The second stage was the period wherein the experiments of exercises and prototyping of the games occurred. The third stage was the period for the packaging of the training courses and the fundamental formation of the Games. Through the experiences gained from these three stages, along with the examination of the challenges of sustainable development and using the SWOT analysis. From cross analysis, the author considered the strategies to solve the difficulties in the future development of the Games. The findings are: (1) the benefits of participation in sports for the aged and disabled need to be widely disseminated, (2) the health benefits of exercise must be established through quantitative and qualitative studies for the incapacitated elderly, and (3) the strategies for the promotion of such sports games should be implemented. To summarize the results from the development process, we understand the conclusions of the first stage as follows: (1) the development of the idea that the incapacitated aged are able to exercise is important, and (2) targeted activities promote motivation and sports participation. From the second stage, the conclusions are: (1) the experimental results are beneficial for the promotion of sport concepts of the incapacitated elderly, (2) the management in the planning of organized sport meetings is significant. The conclusions from the third stage are: (1) suitable packaged courses can promote their sport participation, (2) the popularity of online platforms can support the development of sporting events for the elderly, (3) the collaboration among hosting organizations is imperative for the success of the Games, (4) the support of the participating facilities and caregivers can encourage elders to participate in sports and sporting events, and (5) funding is vital for the success of the Games. It is known that the Games has had specific effects on the incapacitated elderly in physical, psychological, and social aspects and has greatly facilitated cultural exchange. Based on the SWOT analysis, the conclusions of the proposed strategies drawn from the comprehensive discussion with the research participants about the future development are as follows: (1) it is critical that promoting the concept of sport participation is beneficial for the disabled elderly, (2) it is beneficial for the healthy benefits of exercise to be established through quantitative and qualitative studies for the incapacitated elderly, and (3) it is important to organize sports meetings for the aged. It is also evident that the games can promote cultural exchange, promote cross-field cooperation, and even improve the economy. This study provides references for both government, NGOs, NPOs, and private sectors in implementing policies and carrying out activities through the promotion of the concept, future research and management of sports meetings, as well as the integration of inter-ministerial and inter-sector government inputs.
失能高齡者, 運動會, 發展歷程, SWOT分析, 健康促進, the aged of incapacity, sports event, development process, SWOT analysis, health promotion