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Title: 體驗教育之哲學基礎
The philosophical foundation of experiential education
Authors: 謝智謀
Hsieh, Chihmou
Tsao, Wei-Li
Keywords: 體驗教育
Experiential education
philosophical foundation
John Dewey
Kurt Hahn
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: 體驗教育進入台灣,已經有超過二十年的時間。這段期間在實踐以及研究領域,都取得了相當豐碩的成果。但是綜觀目前的研究,幾乎很少探討到這門學問的哲學基礎。在理論與實踐當中,大多會將體驗教育的根源追溯到約翰.杜威或柯特.漢恩,但還沒有人從體驗教育的觀點出發,這這兩人的理論構建成一個體系。本研究藉由統整杜威與漢恩的文本,試圖在其中建構一套針對體驗教育,體系化的哲學基礎。 在杜威看來,教育是為了個人與社會的存續,因此教育本身應該具備「連續性」。理想的教育應該以經驗為本,杜威脈絡下的經驗不只有傳統的被動意義,也具有主動的意義。主動的經驗,意味著身體與心智都參與在學習的過程當中。學習的素材應該取自簡化後的社會環境,讓學習者能夠在學習環境下,學會面對問題、解決問題並應用到真實社會。杜威的教育理想,和他理想中的民主政治高度相關。 在漢恩的理論當中,教育始於對習慣的改變,進而促成身體的健全。而他知名的戶外遠征、專案學習課程都是為了培養美德。美德和付諸實踐的動力來源於看見真實社會的需要。當每個人都能看見社會的需要,而且發現自己能夠滿足這些需要,就能建造出美好的社會。 研究發現,杜威和漢恩的理論,可以建構出四個共通的面向:(1)學習素材必須源自真實社會環境(2)身體和心智在教育當中都扮演重要的角色(3)教學者的角色(4)學習者之間的關係。這些面相正好可以回答為何要學習?學習些什麼?如何去學習,以及在什麼樣的環境下去學習。
Experiential education has been introduced to Taiwan for more than twenty years. In these years, we got bountiful fruit in both practice and research fields. But when take a closer review, there are few discussions about the philosophical foundation. Practitioners and researchers of experiential education often trace the root of to John Dewey and Kurt Hahn. But none of them had built up their theory into a system from the viewpoint of experiential education. The research integrated documents of Dewey and Hahn, and try to make a systematic philosophical foundation for experiential education. In Dewey’ s theory, education is for continuity of man and society, so education itself must be continual. The ideal education should be built from experience. His experience means include not only passive but active. The passive experience means that body and mind both involve in the learning procedure. The learning material must be simplified from real society in order to make students get used to solve the real problem. His ideal education is highly related to his ideal society, which is democracy. In Hahn’s theory, education begin from changing habits to keep fitness. His famous outdoor expedition course and project learnings courses focus on building good virtue. The basis of virtue or motivation of action comes from realization of need of society. If everyone saw the need of society, and found themselves able to satisfy those need, people could make a great society. In conclusion, the research found there are four highly common between Dewey and Hahn. (1) The learning material should come from real society. (2) Body and mind both play important role in education. (3) The role of ‘teacher’ (4) The relation between learners. These can answer why, what, how, and what kind of environment we study.
Other Identifiers: G060407024E
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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