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Public attitudes and beliefs for individuals with depression: The relations of psychosocial causal beliefs, stereotypes, emotional reactions and help-seeking preferences
Serial-multiple mediation model
Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
研究方法：本研究利用電腦輔助電話訪問系統以隨機撥號的方式抽取具全國代表性之資料，針對臺灣20歲至65歲公眾 (n = 800) 進行資料收集。針對所提供的憂鬱症患者案例，詢問關於憂鬱症罹病的心理社會歸因和對於憂鬱症的污名態度，包含：刻板印象、情緒反應，以及尋求專業協助的建議。本研究透過串聯中介分析檢驗心理社會歸因對於尋求專業協助建議之直接效果與間接效果。
Background and Aims: Public stigma is one of the most important barriers for help-seeking of people with depression, which can be predicted by psychosocial causal beliefs. Up to now, evidence for the association between psychosocial causal beliefs, different dimensions of public stigma, and professional help-seeking preferences was either insufficient or largely inconsistent. The present study aimed to explore how psychosocial causal beliefs, stereotypes, and emotional reactions could affect professional help-seeking preferences. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Taiwanese adults aged 20-65 (n = 800) was recruited by random-digit-dialing computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. Participants were asked to answer their psychosocial causal beliefs, stigmatizing attitudes (i.e., stereotypes and emotional reactions), and professional help-seeking preferences for a person with depression described in a case vignette. Serial mediation analyses were conducted to test the direct and indirect effects of psychosocial causal beliefs on professional help-seeking preferences. Results: Psychosocial causal beliefs were positively associated with perceived dependency, which resulted in stronger pity and, in turn, increased help-seeking preferences for mental health professionals. Psychosocial causal beliefs were positively associated with perceived dependency, which resulted in stronger fear and, in turn, increased help-seeking preferences for other medical professionals (i.e., general practitioner, and Chinese medical doctor). Conclusions: This study indicated that reducing negative emotional reactions such as fear and increasing the emotion of pity were likely to be useful in promoting public preferences to seek help frommental health professionals. Stereotypes and emotional reactions toward depression had differential serial mediating effects in the relationships between psychosocial causal beliefs with help-seeking preferences for mental health professionals and for other medical professionals. Understanding these complex associations might enable further work in designing evidence-based interventions for depression.
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