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Appling Nominal Group Technique to Explor Barriers and support of Smoking Cessation among Senior and Vocational High SchoolStudents
senior and vocational high school student
Nominal Groups Technique
smoking cessation difficulty
方法：本研究研究對象為臺北市某三所高中職學校在學且過去六個月內有吸菸行為的學生，共計50名，採取自填式問卷，透過名義團體的方式了解參與者對於戒菸困難與需求支持的看法；同時採用斯皮爾曼等級相關係數分析參與者的學制（高中vs 高職 ）、開始吸菸年齡（高中職以前vs 高中職之後 ）、每日吸菸量（每日吸菸量≦10支vs每日吸菸量≧11支）、尼古丁成癮程度（輕度 vs 中度以上）在戒菸困難與需求支持之看法的相關性。
Background: The rate of smoking cessation is low among senior and vocational high school students with smoking behavior, identifying cessation difficulties and finding need of supports among these students is critical. This study explored factors associated with the smoking cessation difficulties perceived by senior and vocational high school students and their need of cessation supports. Methods: Self-report questionnaire was administered to 50 students recruited from three senior and vocational high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, who had smoked in the past 6 months before the research initiation. Nominal Group Technique was used to explore smoking cessation difficulties faced with the participants and their need of cessation supports. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were used to analyze the correlations between perceived cessation difficulties, need of supports by the grouping of different levels of educational system (i.e., senior high school or vocational high school), 2) time of smoking initiation (i.e., prior to or after admission to senior or vocational high school), 3) daily smoking quantity (≦ 10 cigarettes or ≧ 11 cigarettes), 4) degree of nicotine dependence (mild or moderate–severe). Results: The findings indicated that all participants rated “facing pressure” as the most difficult challenge in term of smoking temptation resistance regardless of the grouping based on the educational system, time of smoking initiation, daily smoking quantity, and degree of nicotine dependence. Such pressure came from academic frustration, low exam scores, and long-term distrust by parents and teachers. In term of family attitudes, the participants rated “My parents disagree with smoking of high and vocational school students, but they smoke” as the most faced difficult. The participants felt uncomfortable when their parents’ words do not match their behaviors, therefore resulting in the difficulties to quit smoking. The participants rated “smoking together for fun” as the most faced difficult in term of peer attitudes. The smokers hesitated to quit smoking to maintain their friendship. The most critical emotional support of participants was “listening to me about difficulties of quitting smoking” because the participants believed that listening of families and friends helped them strengthened willingness of smoking cessation. “Providing chewing gum” was the most critical instrumental support because the participants used chewing gum instead of smoking. . “Someone I trust giving me advices” was the most critical informational support.” For example, the participants mentioned that they believed that they could quit smoking with the assistance of medical professionals. The highest-ranked appraisal support was “Nicotine withdrawal is temporary and can be overcome” because the participants pointed out that they will not have cigarette cravings as long as they survive from nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Furthermore, students from the different levels of groups by educational system, smoking initiation time, and daily smoking quantity all reported that “smoking craving” was the most difficulty of smoking relapse prevention. However, “being irritable and unconcentrated” was the most difficulty perceived by the group of nicotine dependence regardless of different levels. The participants mentioned that whenever they felt anxious (a typical symptom of smoking cessation), they used to smoking cigarettes to alleviate such anxiety. The findings of Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient demonstrated that peer pressure and informational support were statistically significant in all groups regardless of different levels. Conclusion: The findings suggested that regardless of the educational system, time of smoking initiation, daily smoking quantity, and nicotine dependence degree, the participants had similar perspectives on peer pressure and informational support. The findings might contribute to the development of effective smoking cessation program among senior and vocational high schools.
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