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Title: 以台灣旅遊主題融入中初級華語寫作之教材編寫—以記敘文為例
Integrating the Theme of Traveling in Taiwan into the Design of Narrative Writing Material for Intermediate-Low Chinese Language Learners
Authors: 蕭惠貞
Hsiao, Hui-Chen
Yeh, Shu-Yu
Keywords: 中初級寫作教材
Writing material for intermediate-low Chinese language learners
Narrative essays
The theme of traveling in Taiwan
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 缺乏寫作能力會使學習者的語言技能發展不夠完善(羅青松,2002),然而現今華語寫作教材的研究卻相對受到忽視。郭利霞(2013)指出對外漢語寫作教材相對明顯不足,且多數的教材缺乏特色和新意。本研究旨在編寫出以台灣旅遊為主軸之中初級華語寫作教材,並以記敘文為寫作訓練體裁,希冀能提升二語學習者之寫作興趣與寫作能力,同時提供教師有步驟之寫作引導及練習材料。研究方法主要先以「內容分析法」探討寫作歷程、二語寫作教學、二語寫作難點、記敘文架構、教材編寫原則以及台灣旅遊主題在華語教材的應用等相關研究,並分析現行台灣中初級華語寫作教材之內容。其次,對學習者與教師進行問卷調查以瞭解實際需求。接著綜合上述分析設計出本教材之大綱與一課範例,最後請華語教師進行教材評鑑。 本研究結果發現「旅遊」主題在台灣中初級寫作相關材料中的運用不多,並且在寫作引導及練習方面亦不足,然而學習者卻認為寫作主題「台灣旅遊」的趣味性與實用性程度相當高。因此,本教材緊貼使用者需求,並考慮在地性,於進行寫作訓練時亦透過台灣景點介紹兼顧教材的實用性。經各項分析得出以台灣旅遊主題結合中初級記敘文寫作教材的編寫要點為:(1)教材目標以「能用中文介紹自己國家的景點」、「能用中文介紹台灣的景點」以及「記錄旅行中發生的事」為設定方向,符合定向原則;(2)透過「過程法」進行寫作資料收集與引導,並在部分練習題設計上採「控制法」以降低語法使用錯誤。(3)需先簡述記敘文寫作方式再呈現範文,並對範文進行分段提問的摘要練習;(4)寫作練習的固定題型應包含「使用不同的句型來改寫句子」、「寫作前先針對幾個問題和同學討論」、「對範例文章做大意摘要練習」及「將對話改寫成一段記敘文」。由教師之評鑑結果顯示本教材採循序漸進的寫作引導,能協助學習者從「資料收集」、「結合資料與寫作架構」、到完整「書寫文章」。
The lack of writing ability may result in incomplete development of learners’ language ability (Luo, 2002). However, the study of teaching material of Chinese writing has not received enough attention. Guo (2013) stated that most of the materials for teaching writing in Chinese as a second language education are obviously short of features and novelties. Therefore, this dissertation aims to design a teaching material of narrative writing, which integrated with the theme of traveling in Taiwan, aimed for intermediate-low Chinese language learners, and in the hope of stimulating learners’ motivations and enhancing their writing ability as well as providing step-by-step writing guidance and exercises for Chinese language teachers. Firstly, the “content analysis method” was used to analyze the writing process, teaching writing for second language learners, the difficulties of second language writing, the framework of narrative essays, principles of compiling the teaching material, application of the theme of traveling in Taiwan in Chinese language teaching materials and the writing materials for intermediate-low Chinese language learners in Taiwan. Secondly, questionnaire surveys were conducted in order to understand the actual needs of learners and teachers. Thirdly, in accordance with the research results, an outline of a textbook of eight lessons was planned and details of one of the lessons were designed as an example of the textbook. Finally, six teachers were invited to review and provide feedbacks on the design of the teaching material. The research result shows that although “Traveling in Taiwan” is an interesting and practical topic for learners, it is rarely applied to the teaching material of writing for intermediate-low Chinese learners. Besides, writing guidance and exercises were insufficient in current teaching material of writing in Taiwan. As a result, this teaching material meets users’ needs closely in content, and its localization is practical through the introductions of scenic spots in Taiwan and helpful for writing training. After analysis, the main principles of integrating the theme of traveling in Taiwan into the narrative writing material for intermediate-low Chinese language learners were found: (1) The objectives of the textbook need to meet the expectations of learners, which are being able to " introduce attractions of their own countries in Chinese", "introduce the attractions of Taiwan in Chinese", and "take a record of what happened during the trip"; (2) It is suggested to use "process approach" to provide writing guidance and assist students to collect information for writing, and adopt "controlled approach" into the design of some exercises to reduce grammatical errors; (3) A brief introduction of the narrative writing method should be presented before the writing sample, and summary exercises should be made according to the content of each paragraph; (4) The writing exercises should include “Practice of using specific sentence patterns to complete sentences”, “Practice of using different sentence patterns to rewrite sentences”, “A general summary exercise on the sample articles in the textbook” and “Practice of rewriting the conversation into a narrative essay”. After being reviewed by teachers, this teaching material for writing is shown effective in introducing the writing framework with step-by-step guidance, which assists learners to “collect information”, “apply the collected information to the writing framework” and finally “writing an article”
Other Identifiers: G060484042I
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