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Title: 漢語動後「上」的語料庫與意象圖式分析及教學應用
A Corpus-Based and Image Schematic Analysis of Mandarin Post-Verb "Shang" and Its Pedagogical Implications
Authors: 蕭惠貞
Hsiao, Hui-Chen
Lin, Yu-Ching
Keywords: 動後「上」
image schema
cognitive linguistics
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 語言表現人們的認知方式,不同語言的形式表現不同群體的認知差異 (Lakoff, 1987; Langacker, 1987)。本是方位詞的「上」在漢語中置於動詞之後可表示動作、狀態之結果(孟琮,1995;張旺熹,2006)。不少研究指出,結合意象圖式的多義詞教學可加強學生對多義詞的了解(陳曉湘、許銀,2009;陳曉蕾,2015; Li, 2003; Morimoto& Loewen, 2007)。本文旨在運用認知語言學的觀點,透過隱喻、轉喻機制探究動後「上」的語法化現象及語義的延伸,並結合意象圖式的發展探究語義內部的關聯性。同時,透過書面語與口語語料分析,找出動後「上」常見的搭配動詞類型。最後,本文分析現有華語教材中動後「上」語法點的編寫情形,總結所觀察到的現象,結合本文的研究結果,提出語法點編寫建議,並嘗試編寫出新的語法點說明,以提供未來教材編寫者、教學者或是學習者應用與參考。 根據研究結果,動後「上」有「趨向」義、「接觸」義與「實現」義。「實現」義又分「動作完結」和「狀態達成」,其中,「實現」義的語料數為三者之最。就共現的動詞類型來看,「趨向」義與「追趕類」、「攀爬類」和「奉承類」動詞搭配頻率最高;「接觸」義與「穿戴類」、「加裝添附類」動詞搭配頻率最高;「動作完結」的「實現」義與「行走類」、「理想實現類」和「逢遇類」動詞搭配頻率最高,而「狀態達成」義則以「愛」和「喜歡」兩個狀態動詞為主。此外,動後「上」的「趨向」意象圖式牽涉物體在空間中的運行,此意象圖是其他「上」語義意象圖式的原型,透過意象圖式轉換機制的運作及側重之概念,將相對抽象且複雜的時間概念以空間概念呈現出來。
In Modern Chinese, “-shang” is not only a Direction Word but can be used to display the result of an action or a state. Its meaning varies and becomes abstract along with grammaticalization; and its many semantic representations are a noted problem for many Chinese language learners. Some studies, though, point out that image schemas can improve teaching and learning effectiveness in case of polysemy. However, their studies on image schemas only discuss the basic meaning of “-shang” and the other meanings remain unexamined. The main goal of this study is to adopt corpus-based theory and simultaneously use cognitive linguistic perspectives, such as metaphor and metonymy, to explore the meaning of “-shang” and its extensions of meaning. The usage frequency of Verb Selection with “-shang” is collected from texts in the corpus. In addition, the development of image schema is discussed in this study and image schemas are used to semantically represent how meaning of “-shang” are extended. This study analyzes the methods of teaching “-shang” as grammar points within currently used teaching material. Besides and on the basis of these observations and the results we found in the corpus, we try to provide suggestions for further improvement, including newly written and rewritten examples for authors', students' and teachers' use and consideration. The results show that “-shang” refers to four different meanings based on its context: the orientation of action, the event of coming into contact, the completion of action, and the commencement of condition. We began by constructing an image schema for the simplest extension of “-shang”, that of orientation of action. Further image schemas to describe the other, more complex meanings seemed to be unrelated to the concept of space, were derived from this progenitor. That is, image schema of the orientation of action is used to illustrate other extensions of “-shang”, namely time and achievement.  
Other Identifiers: G060484009I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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