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A Case Study of Teaching Hakka Songs in a Hakka Living School
multicultural music education
Hakka livivg school
Hakka songs teaching
Multiculturalism rose from immigration and ethnic problems in the middle of the twentieth century. In Taiwan, native consciousness began to revive and Taiwan started to pay serious attention to the cultural and racial differences among its many ethnic groups after the emancipation of Martial Laws in 1987. In response to the application of multicultural education, Taiwan has been working gradually to incorporate different ethnic cultures in music education. Singing is an important strategy in music instruction and an essential activity to implement multicultural music education. Hakka is one ethnic group in Taiwan, and Hakka songs are unique property of Hakka culture. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate Hakka songs teaching. A case study was used in this study, and the researcher selected Chwen-Ching Elementary School (pseudonym) which is the Hakka Living School as the research subject. This study was conducted through three phases: first, the researcher reviewed related literature to understand the meaning of multicultural music education and Hakka songs. Secondly, the researcher observed one Hakka language class and one Hakka songs class for one semester (2/14/2005~6/28/2005). Thirdly, the researcher interviewed two instructors and the Dean of Academic Affairs. After analysis and discussion in accordance with the collected data, the researcher concluded as follows: I. The meaning of multicultural music education The goal of multicultural education is to attain equal education and to respect others. Multicultural music education is implemented through music appreciation, singing and playing, and curriculum integration to enable students to appreciate, to respect and to tolerate different cultures. The “Gathering of Folk Songs Movement” is considered the beginning of multicultural music education in Taiwan. Not until the emancipation of Martial Laws did Taiwan start to include songs of various cultures in music curriculum. II. The meanings of Hakka songs Hakka songs are well known as their various contents called “ 9 tones and 18 accents”; Hakka songs are divided into “old mountain songs,” “mountain songs,” “flat-tone songs,” and “other songs,” according to their traditional tunes; Hakka songs are unique and beautiful in their art styles. III. The background of teaching Hakka songs in a Hakka living school Hakka living school has to operate in coordination with government and educational policies, and the teaching of Hakka songs has to receive support from school administration. IV. The approach to teaching Hakka songs in a Hakka living school The philosophy of teaching Hakka songs in Hakka language courses is to evoke students’ study motivation, to facilitate language study, and to build study environment. The curriculum design is active and the teaching materials are various. The philosophy in Hakka songs class is learning through natural and realistic approaches combined with the Orff approach. The teaching materials and curriculum design are diversified, and students have high achievements in Hakka songs class. The implementation of Hakka songs has a positive impact on school, teachers, and students.
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