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Title: 跨理論模式應用於高身體質量指數青少年運動行為之探討
Application of Transtheoretical Model to Exercise Behavior with High Body Mass Index in Adolescents
Authors: 林麗娟
Linda L. Lin, Ph. D.
Hank Junling Jwo, Ph. D.
Heng, Chih-Chen
Keywords: 高身體質量指數
high body mass index(high BMI)
Transtheoretical Model
exercise behavior
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 跨理論模式應用於高身體質量指數青少年運動行為之探討 摘要 目的:瞭解高身體質量指數青少年運動行為的現況,並探討其個人背景、社會心理變項與運動行為階段的差異。方法:採自編結構式問卷進行調查,研究對象以台南市公立國民中學學生為母群,以簡單分層抽樣,針對各區高身體質量指數(BMI≧22.2)學生發出問卷921份,有效問卷750份作為研究樣本,有效回收率86.4%。統計資料以單因子變異數分析、卡方檢定進行分析。結果:一、研究對象的運動階段以維持期最多(27.5%),其次分別為準備期(26.8%)、意圖期(17.1%)、行動期(14.8%)、無意圖期(9.9%)。二、不同運動行為階段的高身體質量指數青少年在個人背景因素(區域、年級 ,性別、自覺健康狀況、體位、自認體適能測驗最不理想、運動時間)上有顯著差異(p<.05),在年齡無顯著差異。三、不同運動行為階段的高身體質量指數青少年在知覺運動利益、知覺運動障礙、運動自我效能、運動改變方法、社會支持上有顯著差異(p<.05),在身體型態上無顯著差異。四、不同性別高身體質量指數青少年在運動行為階段、社會心理變項、身體型態上有顯著差異(p<.05)。結論:台南市之高身體質量指數青少年的維持期比率最高,顯示有規律運動者,為有效控制體重,需進一步注重營養教育的實施;高身體質量指數青少年的社會支持為首要改善的部分,其他社會心理變項中影響運動行為的關鍵因素包括生理意像的知覺運動利益、天氣及時間有關的知覺運動障礙 、自我效能中的運動自我承諾及身體型態的自我評價。建議:高身體質量指數青少年運動時,宜避免高溫的運動環境,降低其運動障礙,並針對不同運動行為階段、採取不同之策略,無意圖期以認知教育為主,配合訂定運動契約與使用運動媒體可進一步提昇其運動意圖;已有規律運動者則急需要營養教育的導正。不同性別策略上男性青少年應提昇運動技能,女性青少年則需強調以團體性運動的介入。
Application of Transtheoretical Model to Exercise Behavior with High Body Mass Index in Adolescents Abstract Purposes: To examine the current situation on the exercise behavior and comparing personal background, psychosocial variables between stages of behavior by using the transtheoretical Model in an adolescent population with high body mass index(HBMI). Methods: Students (BMI≧22.2; n = 750) from six different district high schools (Grades 7-9) in Tainan City completed self-administered questionnaires, all of which were adapted from previous literature. The questionnaire included demographics, self-reported levels of exercise, stages of change and social psychology constructs from the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). One-way ANOVA, chi-square test, t-test, were used to assess the concurrent and construct validity of the staging algorithm. Results: (1) In the exercise stages of change, the maintenance stage has the highest population ratio (27.5%), followed by preparation stage (26.8%), contemplation stage(17.1%), action stage(14.8%), and finally the precontemplation stage(9.9%). (2) The exercise behavior in the demographics showed significant differences except for the age. (3) Perception of movement, perceived exercise barriers, exercise self-efficacy, changing of exercise method, and social support showed significant differences, but no significant difference was shown on the body image. (4) The different sex showed significant differences in the exercise behavior, social psychological variable, and the body image of. Conclusion: High body mass index adolescents in Tainan City have a high ratio of maintenance stage. Therefore, nutritional education is necessary for those already have been exercised regularly in order to manage a healthy weight. These HBMI adolescents need a lot of encouragement, but mostly they need social support follow by the benefits of physical cognitive, time and weather barriers, the effectiveness of self-commitment, and self-evaluation of the body image. Recommendations: HBMI adolescents should avoid exercising in the high-temperature environment, and reduce exercise barriers. Implement different strategies at different exercise behavior stages. Precontemplation stage should be focusing mainly on cognitive education, stipulate an exercise commitment and use any exercise media or apparatus to enhance exercise intention. Nutritional education would be needed for those who have already been exercised regularly. Male adolescents should enhance exercise skill and female adolescents should be emphasis on the group exercise.
Other Identifiers: GN0594041118
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