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Biomechanical Analysis of the Men’s 110m Hurdles’ and 100m Dash Sprint Start
本研究主要目的在探討大專男子優秀一百一十公尺跨欄選手六位與一百公尺選手五位共十一位選手(身高177.27±4公分，體重為68.46±1.5公斤及年齡21.82±1.5歲)，從起跑預備動作、起跑推蹬階段與起跑後第一、二、三步著地為止之生物力學變數上的差異。實驗儀器為一台Redlake(250HZ)高速數位攝影機、安裝於起跑架上之測力計一組來蒐集選手的運動學與動力學資料。運動學參數使用Dempster 的人體肢段參數將人體分成14個肢段19個關節點，以Kwon3D動作分析系統計算二度空間的運動學數據。統計方法是採用獨立樣本無母數Mann-Whitney U test進行考驗，顯著水準訂為α= .05。所獲得結果如下：
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the difference of biomechanical parameters between men’s 110m hurdles’ and 100m dash sprint starts. The subjects were eleven collegiate athletes (six hurdles and five dashes) with average height of 177.27 ± 4 cm, weight of 68.46 ± 1.5 kg and age of 21.82 ± 1.5 years. We were interested in analyzing from the set positions of each runner, through the push-off stage, to the first, the second, and the third steps after push-off. A Redlake (250Hz) high-speed digital camera and a force gauge system installed on the push-off frame were used to collect the kinematics and kinetics data. The body segment parameters of the subject was calculated by the model of Dempster(1955). The body was separated in 14 limbs and 19 joints of each athlete. The Kwon3D motion analyzer system was to calculate the 2D kinematics variables. The nonparametric statistical test of the Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis at α = .05 significant level. The results are as follows: 1. Mean reaction time for the hurdles group was 0.2 ± 0.04 seconds, while push-off time for the front and rear feet were 0.34 ± 0.03 and 0.18 ± 0.05 seconds, respectively. Reaction time for the dash group was 0.19 ± 0.03 seconds, with push-off time for the front and rear feet being 0.29 ± 0.004 and 0.15 ± 0.01 seconds. The differences between the front foot push-off duration time were significant. 2. The heights of center of gravity for the hurdles group were significantly higher than the 100m dash group in the first, the second, and the third steps. This was all because the hurdle athletes had to raise their center of gravity in advance to prepare to jump over the first hurdle. 3. Horizontal velocity for the dash group was higher than the hurdles group, while their vertical and horizontal center of gravity displacements were greater than the 100 dash group. The step lengths of 110m hurdle group from the first to the third steps were all greater than the step lengths of 100m dash group. 4. To increase the impulse value of the push off in sprint start might be one of the most important approaches to improve the performance of collegiate short-distance athletes.
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